Let's try to imagine the worstOf all the possible scenarios, you became infected with COVID-19 and went to the hospital. Your condition is rapidly deteriorating, and breathing difficulties are becoming more pronounced. Your body temperature remains high and at some point you begin to choke. To save your life, doctors must connect you to a mechanical ventilation device (ventilator) that helps you breathe while your lungs are recovering. But in a pandemic, hospitals around the world are experiencing an acute shortage of ventilators and ECMO. As a result, there were not enough devices for you. But does this mean that nothing more can be done?
What is an Ambu bag?
Since the development of the concept of the world's firstartificial lung ventilation apparatus has passed almost 70 years. In 1953, doctors Holger Hessen and Henning Ruben developed a peculiar pump bag containing medical valve systems and a flexible face mask in a plastic case. Using an Ambu bag, they wanted to prevent the polio epidemic. Subsequently, Ambu folding bags, special medical devices capable of compact folding and occupying almost 5 times less volume, became the peak in the field of manual resuscitation of the lungs.
Like many other inventions, theydeveloped for the army, then to find application in more peaceful areas. Modern Ambu bags are enclosed in a shockproof case, which is placed in a first-aid kit and does not require "manual inflation", before using it independently sucking in air.
The main function of the ventilator is the injection of oxygenated air into the lungs and the removal of carbon dioxide. This is ventilation, or, as they say, air exchange.
But both hand and modern Ambu bags inby and large, they represent a simple and reliable way to ventilate a patient with room air or air mixed with oxygen. That is why all ambulances and operating rooms in hospitals are equipped with Ambu bags - this allows you to save the lives of patients in the absence of a ventilator. Let me remind you that in more detail about what we need and how the ventilators and ECMO work in the previous article.
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Another advantage of the Ambu bag is itsindependence from power supply. A full-fledged Ambu bag consists of seven parts: a mask, a main ventilation and backup bag, medical valve systems and a nipple. Compared to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, it is more hygienic, simple and effective. However, it should be noted that the device is used exclusively for temporary ventilation of the lungs. One way or another, if the patient is in critical condition, and the ventilator needs to wait, Ambu's bag can save his life.
How does an Ambu bag work?
Since coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 inhibitshuman respiratory system, the main task of doctors is to deliver oxygen to the blood. I note that when a person is healthy, the lungs perform this vital function. In mild cases or in situations where urgent resuscitation is required, patients are helped by the so-called non-invasive methods of ventilation - using the Ambu bag. But how?
Perhaps the most important thing to know about thisthe device is that it allows you to ventilate the lungs, provided that they do not have foreign bodies, as well as retention of the tongue and other unpleasant complications. As a rule, doctors connect the Ambu bag to the airways using various “adapters”: an endotracheal tube, a face mask (possibly with an air duct), as well as a tracheotomy tube. All these devices have a standard diameter, so the bag is sealed to them.
You will be interested: What is ECMO and how is it different from mechanical ventilation?
Immediately after the Ambu bagattached to the respiratory tract of the patient, the doctor begins to rhythmically compress the walls of the bag (about 12-20 times per minute). In cases with more modern devices, this is not required. I note that the design of the Ambu bag is constantly evolving, which led to the emergence of devices capable of even better saturating the blood with oxygen. So, the latest models of breathing bags have an improved design and functionality. But is it possible to predict what these bags for lung resuscitation will be in the future?
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Can I make an Ambu bag with my own hands?
According to DailyLobob, graduate students of the university.New Mexico Mostafa Peysohan and Maryam Bahmani back in mid-April created a simple mechanical ventilation apparatus design. The home-made device is called CorVent and is designed in such a way that any person can assemble it from practically available tools.
Design of a married couple shared on the Internetand noted that they do not want to make money on this. To assemble Corvent, you need at least 10 parts, and the assembly itself takes about five hours. I agree, a lot, but in a situation where a person needs help, but there are no doctors, an ambulance or a hospital nearby, the device will help save the patient's life. The approximate cost of an improved Ambu bag is at least $ 60.
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Corvent consists of two main parts: mechanical fan and oxygen source, and for the operation of the device requires water and electricity. I note that in the past the couple had already worked with patented devices, which helped them to create this design. Thus, a simple emergency resuscitation apparatus for the lungs can be assembled without leaving the DLMA, and all necessary materials can be ordered on the Internet.