In 1931, American writer Charles Fortfirst described the concept of teleportation in one of his novels. Since then, the term coined by Fort began to be actively used in science fiction, gradually becoming not only a literary concept, but also truly scientific. So, today, quantum teleportation is gradually becoming not a fiction, but a real reality.
What is teleportation?
As mentioned above, the term teleportationcame to us from science fiction. However, if in books this process showed the possibility of moving a person and objects even to the most transcendental distances, then modern quantum physics is capable of transmitting a quantum state.
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In order to understand what quantum isstate, imagine an ordinary computer whose data is stored in binary bits in the form of "0" and "1". Compared to such a device, a quantum computer is a much more advanced invention, since it can store data in two states at once. In addition, all information from a quantum computer can be teleported to any distance, which, in fact, scientists from Austria and China did.
In order to test the ability of quantumcomputer beyond the scope of binary code, the researchers conducted a special experiment called the “Bell Test”. In this case, two photons are emitted in different directions at the same time, and one of the photons becomes a kind of “test”, whose indicators are measured and compared with the second photon of light. As practice shows, the information transmitted by the first photon is somehow inexplicably teleported to the second photon, regardless of how far they are from each other.
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For a new study, scientistsadapted the classic experiment to teleport the three-level state of the photon, which they call “cutrite”. The quantum state in this case is what one of the three optical fibers passes through the photon. In this case, we must remember that quantum physics allows one photon to be in any or all three fibers at the same time.
The team used a multiport beam splitterto direct photons, and then manipulated their states with the help of auxiliary photons. By carefully monitoring the interference patterns of these tiny particles of light, the team was able to successfully teleport quantum information to another photon, although the two photons never physically interacted.
The experiment shows that quantumteleportation can be carried out not only in three dimensions, but also theoretically in any number of measurements that open in perspective. In general, the study is a step towards the use of quantum mechanics to improve electronics. In the near future, quantum Internet could connect quantum computers together to transfer data incredibly quickly through quantum teleportation.