I was surprised to find that many people do not knowhow many were manned space missions to the moon and how many people were able to walk on the surface of the Earth’s satellite. Interestingly, the most popular answer is - 1 flight. By the way, many people do not believe in it - they say that it was a production. They can be convinced of their wrongness by reading our previous article. The opportunity to fly to the moon was given only to the Americans, under the Apollo program, held from the 60s to the 70s of the 20th century. So how many people flew to the moon, what did they do there and how long did they stay there?
Total for the Apollo program were committed 6successful astronauts landing on the moon (the last - in 1972). These six flights at the moment - the only ones in the history of mankind, when people landed on another astronomical object.
How many people landed on the moon?
The moon was visited by 12 people. Neil and Buzz were the first people to leave their marks on it. Pete Conrad, Alan Bean, Alan Shepard, Edgar Mitchell, David Scott, James Irwin, John Young, Charles Duke, Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt stepped behind them. Interestingly, out of a dozen people walking the moon, no one has ever done it more than once. However, three different astronauts were lucky to fly to the satellite several times. Jim Lovell flew around the moon on the Apollo 8 and on the Apollo 13. John Young and Eugene Cernan circled the moon on Apollo 10, then Jung landed with Apollo 16, and Cernan walked on the moon during the Apollo 17 mission.
See also: Why did not the astronauts of the USSR fly to the moon?
All manned missions to the moon were carried out increw of three. Directly on the surface landed in twos in a special boarding module. During the landing, the third crew member is in orbit of the Moon aboard a spacecraft (command module) by which the astronauts first flew to the satellite and then returned to Earth.
The first landing on the moon - "Apollo 11"
From left to right: Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, Edwin Aldrin
NASA astronaut Buzz Aldrin descends the stairs of the Lunar Module preparing to set foot on the lunar soil, Apollo 11, 1969
July 20, 1969 during the Apollo 11 missionThe first landing of people on the moon took place. Neil Armstrong went down in history as the first person to set foot on the surface of a satellite. Buzz Aldrin followed him. In total, Nile and Buzz spent 21 hours, 36 minutes and 21 seconds on the lunar surface, and the total duration of the walk on the satellite surface was 2 hours, 31 minutes and 40 seconds. All this time, the third member of the crew, the pilot of the command module Michael Collins, was waiting for them in orbit of the moon.
Aldrin unfolds seismometer
The Apollo 11 lunar landing module after take-off from the Moon approaches the command module that was waiting for it in orbit.
Memorial plaque: “At this place, people from planet Earth set foot on the moon for the first time in July 1969 of our era. We came in peace in the name of all mankind. ” The lower unit of the landing module, on the stand of which the plate was fixed, remained on the Moon.
During his activity on the moon, astronautsput a flag of the United States on the landing site, installed several scientific instruments, and also collected almost 22 kg of lunar soil samples, which were then delivered to Earth
The second landing on the moon "Apollo 12"
From left to right: Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon, Alan Bean
The launch of the second manned mission to the moon took place on November 14, 1969. We reached the satellite on November 19th.
View of the moon's surface from the window of the landing module
The astronauts Pete Konrad and Alan Bean were lucky to walk on the surface of the satellite. The pilot Richard Gordon was waiting for them in orbit.
Alan Bean comes out of the lunar module
Landing on the satellite was carried out in about 1500kilometers from the landing site of the Apollo 11. In the course of this landing, astronauts took photographs of the satellite, collected soil samples, conducted several sessions of television communications with the Earth.
In addition, the Apollo 12 team confirmedyour ultra-precision landing skills. They embarked only 185 meters from the unmanned spacecraft Surveyor 3, which had landed on the moon two years earlier. The astronauts were tasked to dismantle some parts of the apparatus and deliver them to Earth to study the effects of a long stay in lunar conditions.
Pete Conrad next to the Surveyor-3
The time spent on the moon by the Apollo 12 mission astronauts was 31 hours 31 minutes 04 seconds.
During the third flight to the moon, astronauts could die
From left to right: James Lovell, John Swigert, Fred Hayes
The next lunar mission was to beApollo 13 Its launch took place on April 11, 1970. The crew included James Lovell, John Suargate, Fred Hayes. Two days after launch, a serious accident occurred - an oxygen tank exploded on the spacecraft service module. The crew could not land on the moon.
View from the ship above the surface of the moon
It was during this expedition that the famous phrase “Houston, we have problems” was heard.
At the time of the crew rescue operation, a number of countriesincluding the USSR, declared a radio silence on the frequencies used. By the way, based on these events, they even made a film. It is called “Apollo 13”. We advise you to see if anyone has yet seen.
The third landing of people on the moon took place on February 5, 1971.
From left to right: Stuart Russe, Alan Shepard, Edgar Mitchell
The Apollo 14 crew included Alan Shepard,Stuart Russe, Edgar Mitchell. Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell landed on the moon. During their stay on the satellite, astronauts made two exits to the surface with a total duration of 9 hours and 23 minutes.
Shepard holding a flag
Mitchell and Shepard collected 42.8 kg of lunar soil samples. Analysis of stones in laboratories on Earth showed that their age is 4.51 billion years.
On board the Apollo 14 to the moon made a flightabout 500 seeds of five species of trees. After returning to Earth, the seeds were germinated in the nurseries of the US Forest Service. And the seedlings of these trees were then planted in many states of America, universities and centers of NASA. Where trees were planted - accounting was not conducted. But by February 2016, we managed to track down 75 "moon trees" in 25 states.
Golf on the moon
Alan Shepard brought three golf balls with him to the moon (with the knowledge of the flight managers). Using one of the tools as a club, he gave a small golf session, making three hits.
Fourth moon landing - Apollo 15
From left to right: David Scott, Alfred Warden, James Irwin
The crew commander David Scott and the pilot of the lunarModule James Irwin spent on the moon for almost three days (a little less than 67 hours). The astronauts made three exits to the lunar surface, the total duration of which was 18 h 33 min. On the moon, for the first time, the crew used the first lunar rover (moon rover) in history, driving a total of 27.9 km on it.
During their work on the satellite, astronauts collected 77 kg of samples of lunar rocks, conducted several scientific experiments.
In addition, the expedition members located onthe surface of the moon is a memorial tablet "Fallen Astronaut" and an aluminum sculpture depicting an astronaut in a spacesuit. On the plate the names of 8 US astronauts and 6 cosmonauts of the USSR are immortalized, by then dead or dead.
Before leaving the lunar orbit, the astronauts launched from the module of scientific instruments a small artificial satellite of the Moon, designed to measure its magnetic and gravitational fields.
The scandal around the mission "Apollo 15"
Mission crew shortly after arriving on earthturned out to be in the center of the scandal. It turned out that they had taken the mission to the moon with them without permission from the mission leadership and brought back 398 envelopes with stamps. It turned out that even before the flight, the astronauts had agreed with a private person to sell these envelopes. Under the terms of the transaction, 298 envelopes remained with the astronauts, and the remaining hundred they were to be transferred to the buyer for a fee. For services, each astronaut received $ 7,000. Soon it learned about it in NASA.
Envelopes and stamps that astronauts tried to sell
A big sensation has risen. It came even to the US Congress. As a result, all 298 envelopes were confiscated, and the astronauts were subject to disciplinary responsibility and excluded from preparation for further flights, and later generally dismissed from NASA.
Fifth moon landing - Apollo 16
From left to right: Thomas Mattingly, John Young, Charles Duke
John Young and Charles Dukeastronauts who managed to visit the lunar surface. Thomas Mattingly was waiting for them in satellite orbit. By the way, this mission could not take place. When the ship entered lunar orbit in the engine of the control and servicing module, there were problems. The landing delay was 6 hours. During this time, the ship managed to make 11 turns around the satellite. The problem was finally resolved and Apollo 16 was allowed to continue the planned landing. After landing it turned out that the landing module is on a hill and is slightly tilted.
On the moon, the astronauts spent 71 hours, from 21 to 23April 1972. During this time, they made three exits to the surface with a total duration of 20 hours and 14 minutes, and also rolled 26.7 kilometers on the moon rover. Moreover, they set a record for the speed of movement on the moon in a lunar car - 18 km / h.
On the lunar surface were delivered: a cosmic ray detector and an ultraviolet camera and seismometers.
And the astronauts conducted a series of explosions forchecks installed seismic sensors. For this, two dozen explosive charges were used, as well as a mortar! This experiment told scientists about the subsurface structure of the lunar soil (regolith), as well as the speed of sound in it.
One of the charges
The photo shows a mortar for an active seismic experiment.
During the Apollo 16 mission, astronauts collected and96.7 kilograms of lunar soil samples were delivered to Earth. In addition, the astronauts brought to Earth 3,793.5 m of photo and film films shot on the Moon and near-moon orbit.
The last landing of people on the moon
From left to right: Harrison Schmitt, Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans
The latest and longest landingpeople on the moon took place on December 11, 1972. The last guests on Earth's satellite were Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt. The third crew member Ronald Evans remained in orbit of the moon in the spacecraft.
The astronauts remained on the moon just over threedays, 74 hours 59 minutes 40 seconds. During this time, they made three exits from the lunar module with a total duration of 22 hours 3 minutes 57 seconds. Many scientific experiments have been carried out to study the features of the satellite's magnetic field, cosmic radiation particles, and also relief features. 110.5 kg of lunar rock samples were collected and brought to Earth.
Apollo 17 astronaut Harrison Schmitt while collecting soil samples
Docking the landing module with the command
The team returned to Earth December 19, 1972.
How did the Americans go to the toilet during the moon missions?
You are probably wondering howAstronauts solved the issue with the toilet, because they spent on the satellite for several days. A lot of myths and legends developed around this. The most popular opinion is that Americans used diapers. They really used. But when you exit to the surface, when you had to spend at work for several hours. Buzz Aldrin 40 years after the landing of the Apollo 11 on the moon admitted that the diaper was useful to him.
Diaper for the astronaut
Cuffs with urinals were also used to collect liquid waste. For each astronaut was stored stock in 10 removable cuffs for urinal.
There were still such things.
Adhesive disposable bags (fixed onbuttocks) for collecting solid waste, as well as “condoms” for urine. They were usually used inside the module when the astronaut was without a spacesuit. Having done the work, the bags were sealed and then thrown overboard the spacecraft.
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