This is exactly the point of the article by Steven Ostad (StevenN. Austad) and Kathleen E. Fischer, published June 14 in Cell Metabolism. “Humans are the only species whose one sex is more survivable than the other. Apparently, this is one of the key features of human biology, ”the researchers write.
“We don’t know why women live longer. It is strange that science has so little to do with this issue, ”admitted Ostad, professor of biology at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.
Scientists have analyzed a database of human mortality in 38 countries, including records from 1751 for Sweden and from 1816 for France.
“It is amazing that in all 38 countries, women have longer life expectancy than men,” the authors of the article write.
Higher survival rates observed in womenall ages - from children (up to 5 years) to the elderly (over 50 years). According to Gerontology Research Group, among long-livers whose age exceeds 110 years, the vast majority (90%) are women.
Researchers also reviewed data 19-20centuries in Iceland. This small, genetically homogeneous country often experienced disasters - hunger, floods, volcanic eruptions and epidemics. Therefore, information on increased survival among Icelandic women is so eloquent. As it turned out, regardless of the availability of food and the prevalence of infections, more women than men have always survived in Iceland.
Ostat and Fisher argue that women are moreMen are resistant to major causes of death. “In the United States, only a stroke takes away equal numbers of male and female lives. In addition, women are more likely to die from Alzheimer's disease. In all other cases, the main victims of the disease are men, ”the authors report.
“Mainstreaming gender differences will be very important atstage of development of anti-aging products. Perhaps this will allow us to find more effective approaches. There are subtle biological characteristics that underlie gender differences. We must find them, ”says Ostad.
The features that the scientist speaks about are perhapsassociated with the effects of testosterone, to which the male fetus is exposed in the uterus. However, the researchers suggest other hypotheses - from the characteristics of the immune system to the difference in the number of X chromosomes in men and women.