General, Research, Technology

Why is quantum physics akin to magic?

What do you know about quantum physics? Even humanities like me understand that physics and quantum physics are studying slightly different things. At the same time, physics as a whole is a science of nature, which studies how the world works and how all objects and bodies interact with each other. As a branch of physics, quantum mechanics studies our world at the deepest level. The fact is that everything that surrounds us consists of atoms. Yes there, even you and I are nothing more than an ensemble of atoms that originated in the nuclei of supernovae. Moreover, this area of ​​physics is so complex that many scientists admit that it is poorly understood. Given the growing number of questions that today have no answers and some similarities between quantum physics and magic, it is incredibly attractive, but it can be misleading, as many charlatans and pseudoscientists have successfully done. In this article, we will try to understand why quantum physics is so similar to magic.

From the point of view of quantum physics, the existence of our universe may make sense

Photon - This is an elementary particle that has no mass and can exist in a vacuum, moving at the speed of light. The electric charge of a photon is also equal to zero.

Nobody in the world understands quantum mechanics.

We all love magic tricks. Especially those during which the magician can cause the balls to “jump” between inverted cups. In quantum systems, where the properties of an object, including its location, may vary depending on how do you watch him such feats should be possible without dexterityhands. The fact is that according to quantum theory, an elementary particle acquires a certain state only at the time of observation. It's hard to believe, but in the end, scientists were able to experimentally prove using a single photon that he exists in three places at the same time. But how is this possible?

One of the most famous quantum experiments is double-slit experiment, which showed that light and matter can behave like a particle and a wave at the same time.

It should be noted that success quantum mechanics - with the help of which you can accurately describe the behavioratoms and elementary particles - Albert Einstein was interested. However, a brilliant scientist opposed this theory and ridiculed the concept that underlies it - entanglement. In quantum mechanics, entanglement means that the properties of one particle can immediately affect the properties of another, regardless of the distance between them.

Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in which the quantum states of two or more objects are interdependent.

Subsequently, a series of carefully designedexperiments showed that Einstein was wrong: entanglement is real and no other theory can explain its strange effects. And yet, despite the ability of quantum theory to explain the results experimentally, many scientists admit that quantum physics is so complex that it is hardly possible to know it.

However, entanglement is not the only phenomenonwhich separates quantum theory from classical. According to some physicists, there is another shocking fact about quantum reality, which is often overlooked and which adds “magic” to this area of ​​theoretical physics. According to The New Scientist, in 1967, Simon Kochen and Ernst Specker mathematically proved that even for one quantum object where entanglement is impossible, the values ​​that you get when measuring its properties depend on the situation in which this object is located. Thus, the value of property A depends on whether you decide to measure it using property B or using property C. In simple words, there is no reality independent of the choice of dimension.

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Magic of reality

Agree, all this is at least strange andmakes the brain literally crack at the seams. After all, it turns out that the presence of an observer determines the fate of the system and forces it to choose one state. But is this not an interference of consciousness in material reality? And if we take into account that the photon of light can be both a particle and a wave and can be located in three places at once, then in what world do we live at all? Is this evidence of the existence of parallel realities with the same laws of physics?

Quantum physics can probably fit into almost any fictional story

And this is only part of the questions to whichModern physics has no answers. Till. However, everything unknown from ancient times scared people. Sometimes people are ready to believe in anything, if only there is at least one - and no matter what - the answer. For this reason, it is not surprising that all kinds of charlatans and pseudo-scientists love quantum physics so much. If for the sake of interest to include REN TV, then you can stumble upon one of the programs about the other world, in which, as an expert, another pseudo-scientist acts. In 99 cases out of 100, his false explanation of the world order will include at least one mention of quantum physics. Moreover, any pseudoscientist briskly flaunts such scientific terms as electron, photon and confusion, so that in the eyes of an inexperienced viewer to find a more or less reliable look.

See also: Cat Schrödinger can be saved without even looking in the box

Sometimes it even seems to me that anyone self-respectingThe charlatan is simply obliged to have in his repertoire an speech about the secrets of quantum physics. After all, scientists have practically nothing to object to their claims that quantum mechanics is a mystery to scientists. Is it really convenient? The result of the popularization of such ideas can be a false idea of ​​the world for a large number of people. Ideas like this also contribute to a penchant for alternative medicine and the treatment of dangerous diseases with hand-laying. So, from TV screens esoterics with foam at the mouth prove that thought is material because quantum physics is here, and homegrown biologists weave quantum physics into their unsubstantiated ideas about the wave genome, etc. All this contributes to the development of magical thinking, which I wrote more about earlier, and to the growth of myths and misconceptions about the world in which we live.

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According to Edwin Schrödinger's theory, the cat in the box can be both alive and dead at the same time.

Meanwhile, quantum physics is realmagic. The magic of reality. Yes, we don’t understand much and don’t know the answers to the questions that quantum entanglement and the results of numerous experiments, including the cat Schrödinger, about which my colleague Nikolai Khizhnyak had previously written, generate questions. Moreover, reality is much more interesting than fiction, because we don’t know so much about it: our Universe is 95% mysterious dark matter, and there is also dark energy that is responsible for accelerating the expansion of the Universe. Moreover, at the deepest level, our world consists of the smallest particles that can be in several places at the same time and behave differently depending on whether we observe them or not. If this is not the magic of reality, then what is reality ?.

At the same time, science has already produced manyanswers to the most important questions about our world. One way or another, I think that there is nothing wrong with not knowing something and not understanding quantum physics. The main thing is our ability to know as much as possible, to know the Universe. Which, most likely, also knows itself through us.

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