In Russia, almost all roads are covered with asphalt -concrete routes as in the USA and other countries are not popular with us. If the pavement is laid in compliance with all the rules, the service life of an asphalt road reaches 10 years, but where have you seen ideal roads without holes and other irregularities? The Russian climate is usually blamed for the appearance of flaws on the roads, they say, the asphalt is covered with cracks and holes due to temperature changes and other vagaries of nature. But, let's face it, usually bad roads are caused by poor asphalt paving technology - to cut costs, road workers add less bituminous emulsion to the mix, and save on sand and gravel. Usually, road repairs are made in the summer, but the Internet is full of videos where pits are repaired in a downpour or even in a snowy winter. Isn't that a violation of the rules for laying roads? Let's figure it out.
- 1 When does the road need to be repaired?
- 2 How are roads repaired?
- 2.1 Cold asphalt paving
- 2.2 Paving hot asphalt
- 3 Can roads be repaired in winter?
- 4 Service life of roads
When does the road need to be repaired?
According to the document GOST R 50597–93, the maximumallowable sizes of holes on the roads are no more than 60 centimeters in width, 15 centimeters in length and 5 centimeters in depth. The traffic police should monitor the condition of the roads - in case of detecting serious irregularities, they must notify the road workers. Those, in turn, are obliged to fix the problem as soon as possible, because even a small hole can cause a serious accident. Since we are talking about people's lives, very little time is allotted for repairs, from 1 to 14 days. Therefore, often repairmen do not have the opportunity to wait for good weather.
How are roads repaired?
There are several ways to repair roads. The choice depends on what area needs to be restored, what budget is allocated for work and what the weather is like outside the window.
Cold asphalt paving
Most often, for repairing small pits,cold asphalt is used. It is a mixture of crushed stone, gravel, sand, mineral powder and slowly thickening, liquid bitumen. Unlike hot asphalt, cold asphalt is prepared without heating and can be laid even at -5 degrees Celsius. After laying, it is already possible to drive along the repaired road - the skating rink is not needed at all, because it is replaced by driving cars. Cold asphalt becomes solid as a result of the evaporation of hydrocarbon compounds that are part of the liquid bitumen.
Hot asphalt paving
Hot asphalt is prepared from sand, granitecrushed stone, bitumen and various mineral additives. In order for the coating to serve for a long time, it is important that the sand is granular, the gravel is strong, and the bitumen is plastic. As a rule, hot asphalt is used only in the construction of new roads or the complete reconstruction of old ones. Sometimes it is also used in the repair of pits, but usually only at temperatures above 10 degrees Celsius. If you need to make repairs in the winter, cast mixtures are brought to the site, warmed up to 200 degrees Celsius. Under the influence of high temperatures, the water that is in the pit simply evaporates.
Can roads be repaired in winter?
Based on the above, the roads are betterlay in a positive temperature or a maximum of 5-degree cold. However, if necessary, repairmen can start work in colder weather. For such cases, there is even a memo "for the repair of asphalt concrete pavements in adverse weather conditions." For example, it is recommended to first clear the pits from water with brushes and dry them by blowing. On the Internet, you can find videos of workers repairing roads on snowy days - this is not prohibited, because repairs can be carried out with 5 mm rainfall. But if it snows heavily, work is prohibited.
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Service life of roads
As a rule, city roads consist oftwo or three layers about ten centimeters thick. If the job is done well, the top layer should last 5 years and the bottom one about four. Sometimes the warranty period is calculated depending on the traffic intensity. That is, if about a thousand cars drive along the road per day, it can last up to eight years. If the track is designed for 20 thousand cars per day, its service life is about two years, no more. As for federal highways, they must meet the requirements of 12 years.
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The reality is that despite everything writtenabove, Russia often has very bad roads. Unfortunately, service companies are usually to blame for this, which may specifically not comply with laying rules so that roads become unusable faster. And the more often the roads are repaired, the more often and more the workers get paid. And what do you think about this? Write in the comments.