Oddly enough, but today people all over the worldexpect the same thing: a vaccine against a new coronavirus, which takes several hundred lives every day. Scientists around the world are working on a vaccine and the work is moving at breakneck speed. So, this week the first of several dozen volunteers in the United States received the first vaccine as part of a trial. But when will the vaccine be ready and available to people around the world? While scientists are working on a vaccine, experts estimate that the process of creating a vaccine and its availability can take at least 12 months. In this article, we will look at how the process of creating a vaccine is going on and which countries are working to find a cure for a disease that caused a pandemic and ruined the usual order of things.
Vaccine creation process
The process of creating a vaccine is complex andtime-consuming, because it involves several procedures, ranging from identifying the genetic sequence of the virus (DNA) - which we described in our special material - and growing the virus in the laboratory to create a vaccine and then conduct human trials. While research by scientists in China, Russia, the United States, Germany, and other countries is rapidly moving forward, it may take some time before the vaccine is made and available for use by the general public. According to various estimates, the vaccine manufacturing process can take from 12 to 18 months.
Since the manufacture and manufacture of a vaccine isA long and laborious process, some scientists are trying to find a cure with the help of existing medicines that are used to treat other viral diseases. In one of the materials on the outbreak of coronavirus, we talked about the effectiveness of treating CoVID-19 with an anti-malaria drug. Recall that CoVID-10 is part of the family of coronaviruses that affect the respiratory system of humans and animals. Some types of coronaviruses cause harmless SARS, but others cause the development of SARS, such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) outbreaks of which were observed in 2003 and 2006, respectively. For this reason, many researchers have focused on developing a vaccine based on existing data from a study of SARS and MERS.
Unfortunately, the development of vaccines against viraldiseases is an extremely difficult task and to date, vaccines against SARS and MERS do not exist. Moreover, work on a vaccine against two relatives of CoVID-19 has been suspended due to the pandemic and the consequences that will follow.
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Earlier in March, representatives of the Ministry of Health of the PRCannounced that scientists are in the process of creating a vaccine that can be ready for use in April, according to Voice of America. This statement came as a surprise because experts believe it will take months to make a vaccine before it can be used. Also, do not forget that the vaccine must be tested for safety and efficacy in humans. Not to mention the time it will take for its mass production.
Chinese scientists hope to begin in Aprilclinical trials of a vaccine. It is also possible that they can be used in emergency situations. However, what kind of emergencies are in question is not clear. Current Chinese law allows vaccines designed for major public health emergencies to be deployed for urgent use under certain conditions if the National Medical Product Administration believes that the benefits of treatment outweigh the risks.
CanSino Biologics Inc. The co-developer of the vaccine, together with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, also confirmed that the vaccine has received government approval for human trials and announced that trials will begin in Wuhan, Bloomberg reports. Earlier, the results of a study in which the vaccine was tested on monkeys gave some hope for the successful creation of the vaccine, since it was found that revaccination of CoVID-19 does not occur after vaccination.
Prior to China's announcement, the most successful attemptwas undertaken by scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and their colleagues from the Boston biotechnology company Moderna Therapeutics. It took Moderna scientists only 42 days after the genetic sequencing of the virus was identified. The fact is that scientists tried to use a new method of creating a vaccine that does not include the cultivation of the virus in the laboratory, which usually takes months, TIME reports.
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In practice, traditional vaccination methodsbased on the introduction of microbes into the body to develop immunity to the causative agent of the disease. Immunity appears due to the production of the right types of proteins to fight the virus or bacteria. The Moderna method is different in that their vaccine, instead of containing the virus itself, contains RNA, the genetic material that creates proteins. Simply put, a vaccine tells the body which proteins need to be created to fight the virus, instead of introducing the virus into the body.
This method allows you to quickly produce a vaccine andif successful, it may be useful to deter not only CoVID-19, but also all rapidly spreading viruses and bacteria. The US National Institute of Health (NIH) announced that the first volunteer, a healthy 45-year-old woman, received the test vaccine on March 16th. A total of 45 healthy adult volunteers aged 18 to 55 years will take part in the trial for approximately 6 weeks. Although at the moment these tests are the main hope of mankind in the fight against coronavirus, soon another American company called Inovio Pharmaceuticals, intends to start testing its own vaccine for safety next month but not for effectiveness.
According to RBC, the Institute of influenza in Russia,who previously worked on the production of the Ebola vaccine, also said that laboratory tests of the vaccine in animals will begin soon and by June the vaccine will be ready for testing in humans. However, despite optimistic statements and the completely deciphered genome of the new coronavirus, Russian experts agree that the vaccine is likely to be available to the general public no sooner than in a year. Unfortunately, the reality is that no one knows how long the entire vaccine manufacturing process will take.
German company CureVac with which, asThe Trump administration has reportedly been contacted, is also one of the well-known companies and is likely to begin testing the vaccine for safety this summer. Effectiveness tests will follow.
In the meantime, scientists are working on manufacturingvaccines, you must comply with all the recommendations of the World Health Organization: wash your hands with soap and water, observe social distance and minimize contact with other people. In the end, humanity has been fighting viruses throughout its history, and the victory, as you well know, is ours.