Now many are talking about global warming whenany opportunity. Some complain: “The heat in June is all global warming.” Others contradict them: "Well, the frost in February, and they also talk about global warming." These phrases in one form or another are remembered by many, and very often. All this is due to the fact that it is the result of large-scale human exposure to the atmosphere. Global warming is part of the constant changes in nature. It is replaced by an ice age and comes back. Man also exerts his influence on these processes, but it is not so strong. In general, everything is much more complicated than many people think. For a hundred years of active activity, man cannot “break” the planet. But what then happens?
- 1 What is the ice age
- 2 Ice Age and Global Warming
- 3 When scientists learned about the ice ages
- 4 Ice Age Exploration
- 5 How ice ages begin
- 6 How ice ages end
- 7 Influence of the ice age on flora and fauna
- 8 The last ice age and the maximum of the last glaciation
- 9 Is it possible to delay the ice age
What is the ice age
First of all, it’s worth understanding that glacialperiod is not a cartoon about the mammoth and his friends. This is a full-fledged natural phenomenon that lasts hundreds of thousands of years. The ice age is periodically repeated and seriously affects not only animals, but even the landscape of our planet.
ice Age (scientific glaciation) - a periodically repeating stage of the geological history of the Earth (lasting several million years), during which a general relative cooling of the climate is observed and significant growths of the continental ice sheets occur.
The most famous victims of the ice agedinosaurs are considered, especially the smallest. The other day, Ramis Ganiev already wrote about them. You can’t even imagine how small they were. With this size, it is not surprising that they were dying. Scientists are still arguing about what killed them, but this version is considered the most important.
Extinct animals were least adapted toclimate change conditions. Although even smaller representatives of living organisms survived it and still live with us. Among them is a true contemporary of ancient monsters.
Ice Age and Global Warming
Ice ages are periodically replaced by stages of global warming. When these stages begin, there is almost no ice on Earth. Ice can only be found at the poles and on the tops of large mountains.
When the ice ages came, theycaptured the territories in which Canada, the north of the USA, Germany, Great Britain, Poland, Belarus, as well as most of Russia are now located. There were also ice-covered areas closer to the equator. For example, rocky mountains in North America.
There was so much ice in the southern hemisphere. This is due, first of all, to the fact that the area of the continents there is less. However, the Andes were covered in ice.
Oceans near the poles were not completely covereda thick layer of ice. It was more than now, but the difference was not as significant as it seems to many. In addition, the amount of ice in the ocean was seasonal. In the summer months, as in our time, even in the Arctic Ocean there were large areas free of ice.
Ice ages have had a seriousimpact on our planet. Of course, they did not move the continents and did not change the coastline, but given their constant impact, it accumulated and was quite significant. The landscape changed not only after earthquakes, meteorites and tectonic plates, but also from the millions of tons of ice that crushed it.
When scientists learned about the ice ages
The first talk about what was on Earthice ages, appeared in the middle of the XIX century. One of the cats that discovered this phenomenon was Louis Agassis. He was a Swiss geologist and studied alpine glaciers. In the course of his research, he came to the conclusion that once upon a time the amount of ice in these mountains was significantly greater than in his time.
Around the same time, another Swiss, Jean de Charpentier, thought about it. The fact that they were from this country is not a mere coincidence. This mountain range passes through the territory of their country.
The first serious scientific work on this subjectcan be considered the book of Agassis. It was published in 1840 and in it he spoke in detail about his theory of the ice age. Four years later, he released another book in which he shared his new best practices and developed the original idea. Before the release of these books, he published only articles. For example, in 1937 he published his first article, entitled “Theory of Glaciers”. In it, he first touched on the issue of large glaciers. Many took his works skeptically, but eventually accepted them. Especially when new evidence of his conclusions began to appear.
Over time, this inevitably led to conflict.scientific and religious community. Such conflicts often arose after serious discoveries. As a result, they tried to correlate the ice age with the Great Flood, but it turned out badly. To call one evidence of another did not work and the conflicts continued.
Despite the allure of learningice ages, they were not given due attention. Only at the beginning of the 20th century, when their traces were discovered all over the world, did the study become really widespread. Later, this study resulted in a separate course in science. Since then, many researchers have devoted themselves entirely to the study of the ice age.
Ice Age Exploration
Many do not believe that ice can be provedin some place if it has already melted. Especially if it melted tens of thousands of years ago. Those who do not believe are mistaken. First of all, due to the fact that the ice cover leaves behind pronounced traces in the form of diamicton.
Diamicton - ordered sediment layers remaining in the geological section after the glaciers converge.
These and other deposits are formed by glaciallakes and glaciers themselves, which can both grow in different directions, and crawl into the sea. Sliding, glaciers carry with them part of the rock. Ice is lighter than water and therefore can swim. When he swims he gradually melts and dumps the collected rock. From these “discharges” one can understand where this ice was and how it ended up in a new place for him.
Those rocks that do not fall into the ocean, butmoved by land, can also help in the study of the ice age. Also, sediments at the bottom of mountain lakes, many of which were formed precisely during the ice age, can also help in research.
How ice ages begin
There are many theories of why the ice ages begin, but one of them has more supporters than the others. It links global climate change with local landscape changes.
If you believe the gloomy forecasts, then because of climate change, we have only a short time to live peacefully on our planet. Here are some evidence for this.
Our planet is very heated by the sununevenly due to the fact that it has the shape of a ball, not a disk, as many argue (Nikolai Khizhnyak cited evidence of this). The result is a temperature difference in different parts of the planet. Because of this, air and water masses begin to move between the equator and the pluses.
If there were no continents on Earth, howsaid Daria Eletskaya in her article, this would happen very easily. With the advent of the continents, the circulation of air and water was disrupted. For example, one of the reasons for the beginning of the ice ages is the formation of the Himalayas, which slowed down the movement of air masses from the equator to the north pole.
Another ice age began after the “overgrowing” of the Isthmus of Panama between North and South America. As a result, the movement of water between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans was disrupted.
In the end, between the equator and the poles, especiallythe north accumulates a temperature difference. Due to the buildup of ice, this difference becomes even greater. Ice prevents the poles from warming up. As a result, it launches a long process of climate change.
How ice ages end
No matter how fierce the ice age is, sooner orlater it will be replaced by warm time. It is also called the interglacial period. The main reason for this transition is called a change in the orbit and trajectory of the Earth around the Sun. These changes do not seem significant, but they are enough to change the heat balance on the planet.
Usually ice ages last up to one hundred thousandyears, after which, over several thousand years, they switch to interglacial. Now we just live in such a period. Its features are a relatively equal temperature throughout the Earth, a relatively small amount of snow and ice and a high level of the world's oceans.
During the ice age, living conditions onEarth become unbearable. For example, in the latitudes of Moscow, Berlin, Tokyo and New York in winter, life is impossible due to very harsh conditions. In the summer, the conditions are softer, and you can even live in them, but they are still much worse than those we are used to.
The influence of the ice age on flora and fauna
Ice ages lead to a drop in leveloceans. This is due to the fact that all water is collected on land in the form of ice, significantly changing the landscape of the planet. Sea level may fall by a hundred or more meters. Given that some straits, for example, the Bering have a significantly shallower depth, this is enough to connect entire continents.
For example, the union of Eurasia and North America(through the Bering Strait), could cause the Mayan civilization. According to one version, the Mayans are descendants of Asian tribes who gradually moved to another continent. By the way, I recently wrote an article in which I gave examples of the fact that Maya was less friendly than previously thought.
Entire plant systems can also move. They grow in temporarily drained territories and move to new islands, peninsulas, and continents, to which they have “grown” the seabed.
Later this “gate” slams and the water levelrises, but over several tens of thousands of years, colonies of plants and animals are already on new lands. So there is a global movement of living organisms and plants on the planet.
On the contrary, some species die, such asdinosaurs or plants that grew only in the northern regions. As a result, the ice ages have a very big impact not only on the landscape of the planet, but also on its inhabitants.
Last ice age at the momentcalled cenozoic. It is considered the time of the origin of intelligent man. A large number of animal species died out in Cenozoic and life on Earth underwent a kind of reboot. As a result of this reboot, organisms capable of withstanding the complex environmental conditions appeared. In the process of evolution, the ability to adapt, which is important now, came first.
The last ice age and the maximum of the last glaciation
The last era of glaciation began around 110thousand years ago and ended about 12 thousand years ago. At this time, the area of ice cover was constantly changing, either up or down, but reached its peak in the period 27-19 thousand years ago. During this period, the Earth had the most difficult conditions. Especially in the area of present-day France and Germany.
During this period, the average temperature on the planet was6 degrees Celsius lower than now. The level of the world ocean was 135-150 meters lower, and the thickness of the ice cover on land reached 3-4 kilometers. Humidity on the planet was also very low. This has led to fewer forests and even desertification of southern Australia. Though