Research

What is “dark photons” and why physicists began to look for them again

Recently, the amount of information aboutthe properties and structure of the elementary particles that make up our entire Universe has increased significantly. This allowed scientists to learn more about the structure of our world. However, one thing still haunts them: dark matter. Its presence is confirmed by theoretical calculations and even there is some evidence that it really should exist. But "see" the elementary particle of which dark matter is composed has so far failed. However, physicists at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) suggest that the so-called “dark photon” should be the “basis” of dark matter. And scientists have begun his search.

What is dark matter?

Dark matter is not so called becausethat it is black. This is an abstract concept, which suggests that this form of matter does not emit electromagnetic radiation. That is, in simple terms, the particles of which it consists are not fixed by any existing means of visual observation. Assumptions about the existence of dark matter are made on the basis of numerous calculations and observations of astrophysical objects on the gravitational effects created by them. Roughly speaking, if we “put” into the behavior of the object all the elementary particles known and visible to us, “something will be missed”. And this “something” that was not visible to us, but exerting gravitational effects, was called dark matter.

How to find dark matter?

This is precisely the question that CERN physicists are already asking.many years in a row. One hypothesis is that dark matter consists of elements that interact with each other and with the visible part of matter through particles called “dark photons”. "Dark photons" for dark matter are the same as ordinary photons are in the real world - elementary particles. Only here we can not see them.

This is interesting: Why scientists can not detect dark matter?

However, as part of a series of experiments NA64 in 2016 -In 2018, scientists tried to confirm the hypotheses about the existence of dark photons. During those tests, an energy beam burst in a superproton accelerator (SPS). It was assumed that the dark photon could be detected by the energy that it “takes for itself” after the explosion. Then it was not possible to learn anything concrete, but now, after analyzing the available data, the scientists came to the conclusion that dark photons can have a much weaker force of interaction with matter than expected. Roughly speaking, a dark photon must "take" several thousand times less energy in an explosion, while scientists simply "searched for it at other frequencies." Therefore, now physicists at CERN intend to repeat a series of experiments using more accurate instruments.

Creation of new sensors should be completed by2021 Perhaps it is then that we will receive confirmation of the existence of dark matter. Well, in order not to miss this moment, we advise you to subscribe to our news channel in Telegram. So you will find out the news the very first.