There are about 3600 species of mosquitoes in the world andabout 100 of them live in Russia. These annoying creatures are especially active in the evening and even more so at night - they continually squeak under the ear, drink blood and leave behind swelling and redness. But this is only half the trouble, because these insects are also distributors of dangerous diseases. The most dangerous are mosquitoes that live in Africa and carry malaria, a febrile disease that often ends in death. Dangerous mosquitoes can even be found in Russia, spreading other, little-known but very dangerous diseases. Let's find out what the next mosquito bite can turn into?
Interesting fact: mosquitoes drink the blood of humans and animals becausethey need it for reproduction. Most often they bite people with the first blood group, as well as lovers of dairy products, soy and pickled vegetables. Who else? Here's the answer.
- 1 Why do mosquitoes drink blood?
- 2 What happens when a mosquito bites?
- 3 What diseases are spread by mosquitoes?
- 3.1 Malaria is the main disease of mosquitoes
- 3.2 Dirofilariasis from a mosquito bite
- 3.3 Tularemia is an infection from mosquitoes
- 3.4 Chikungunya virus and other tropical diseases
- 3.5 Allergy to mosquitoes
Why do mosquitoes drink blood?
Scientists say mosquitoes can smellperson at a distance of up to 30 meters. Only females are involved in drinking blood, because they need proteins for the formation of eggs and reproduction. And male mosquitoes live well, eating flower nectar.
What happens when a mosquito bites?
When female mosquitoes bite a person or animal,they first make a tiny incision in the skin and inject saliva into it. It contains painkillers, as well as substances that slow down the process of blood clotting. After that, the proboscis is lowered into the wound to suck out the liquid. In some cases, bacteria are found in the proboscis, which are the causative agents of dangerous diseases. This is how a mosquito bite occurs.
What diseases are spread by mosquitoes
The list of diseases that can be transmitted to humans from mosquitoes is quite large. Within the framework of this article, we will only talk about those that are able to spread on the territory of Russia.
Malaria is the main disease of mosquitoes.
When it comes to diseases spreadingthrough mosquito bites, the first thing that comes to mind is malaria. Its distributors are mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, which carry parasites of the genus Plasmodium. After being infected with malaria, a person's temperature rises, the liver and spleen increase, and the level of hemoglobin in the blood drops significantly.
Malaria mosquitoes are usually found onAfrica and other hot countries. However, in 2020 there was a danger of the spread of dangerous insects in Russia - there is a very good reason for this, which you can read about here.
Mosquitoes are everywhere, even in Antarctica. Guess how they got there? The answer is here.
Dirofilariasis from a mosquito bite
The second dangerous disease is called dirofilariasis.- its pathogens are parasitic worms of the genus Dirofilaria. When bitten by infected mosquitoes, their larvae can enter the body and develop in it for a long time. Most often, worms accumulate in the organs of vision, limbs, neck, face, chest and genital area. Symptoms of heartworm infection include fever, weakness, pain in the head, and areas where worms develop. Fortunately, remedies for parasitic worms help with the disease, but in some cases they are removed surgically.
Tularemia is an infection from mosquitoes.
Tularemia is caused by bacteria of the speciesFrancisella tularensis. The infection makes itself felt by raising the body temperature and affecting the lymph nodes. With the development of the disease, other symptoms appear, such as the appearance of pinpoint hemorrhages in the mouth and so on - in general, the disease is very difficult. Cases of tularemia have been recorded in many parts of the world, including Russia. Usually, rodents are carriers of dangerous bacteria, but in some cases, infection occurs even with a mosquito bite.
Chikungunya virus and other tropical diseases
Mosquitoes that are infected with the chikungunya virus(CHIKV) and pathogens of other dangerous diseases like dengue fever are not usually found in Russia. But they can hit people during tourist trips, and after returning to their homeland, they can be transmitted by air, and so on. Most of them have similar symptoms, including high body temperature, swollen lymph nodes, and so on. And all of them are difficult to treat and require isolation of the person.
Recently, scientists have trained mosquitoes to drink blood and spread disease. The method is very interesting.
Allergy to mosquitoes
In some cases, mosquitoes are dangerous because they cancause allergies. Such a reaction is called an insect reaction and is almost the same as an allergy to the stings of bees, wasps and other insects. In the presence of allergies, swelling, redness and severe itching occur at the site of a mosquito bite - as usual, but stronger. With particularly strong sensitivity, anaphylactic shock can occur, which often leads to the death of a person.
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As you can see, sometimes even a mosquito bite can becomecause serious health problems. Perhaps after that, many will want to patch holes in the mosquito net and buy a device to repel insects. Maybe you know about other dangers of blood-sucking insects and how to deal with them? Write in the comments or our Telegram chat.