In a material about a huge swarm visible from spaceants, we mentioned the sweltering heat that overtook residents of European countries. However, the summer of 2019 unpleasantly surprised the residents of the United States - in early July in the state of California over a few days there were more than 3,000 earthquakes. Tremors caused fires, blackouts and damage to buildings. But did you know that phenomena very similar to earthquakes occur on other planets? For example, they definitely are on the satellite of our planet, the Moon. There is also evidence that they occur on Mars, which we dream of someday to move.
Between the so-called earthquakes,There are big differences between moon and marsh shakes. Basically it consists in the frequency of tremors and the duration of the period during which the surface of the planet or satellite shakes. A thorough study of earthquakes was begun at the end of the 19th century — it was then that the science of seismology appeared, studying the causes and effects of earthquakes. The moonquakes interested scientists in the 1970s, when, in the framework of the Apollo missions, devices were installed on the satellite of our planet to measure the strength of the surface oscillations. Marsquake also began to be studied in the 1970s, during the Viking mission.
- 1 Earthquakes
- 2 Moonquakes - earthquakes on the moon
- 3 Marshake shocks - earthquakes on Mars
- 4 Video of earthquake, moonquake and marshmakes
The cause of the tremors on EarthIt is considered the constant movement of tectonic plates that make up the surface of our planet. They move because of temperature fluctuations in the depths of the globe - when heated, they rise up, and when cooled down they go down. As a rule, the strongest earthquakes occur on the margins of tectonic plates. It is in this area is California, located near the San Andreas Fault, which arose between the Pacific and North American plates.
San Andreas Rift
The science that studies causes and effectsearthquake, as mentioned above, is called seismology. It was thanks to this science that mankind became aware that our Earth consists of several layers, namely, the crust, the mantle and the core. The main working tool of seismologists is the measuring instrument seismograph, which records even the smallest seismic waves or, more simply, oscillations in the depths of the planet.
The duration of earthquakes is usually equal tojust a few minutes. In this case, shocks can occur very often and with great force. Depending on the strength of the shocks, earthquakes are divided into strong, weak and microearthquakes. The most destructive, of course, are strong earthquakes, because of which buildings collapse and thousands of people die.
Just look at the consequences: 10 of the most devastating earthquakes in history
Moonquakes - earthquakes on the moon
For many, this may be true.discovery, but the surface of the moon sometimes shakes too. The so-called moonquakes can occur almost every day due to temperature fluctuations during sunrise and sunset. Sometimes they occur due to the fall of meteorites, but guaranteed, twice a month - under the influence of tidal forces of the Sun and the Earth. There have never been any shocks caused by the movement of tectonic plates on the Moon - these plates on our satellite simply do not exist.
Lunar seismograph with Apollo 16
The existence of moonquakes scientists learned in1970, in the framework of the space missions "Apollo". It was then that four seismometers were installed on the surface of the moon, which for 7 years of their work recorded 28 aftershocks that occurred somewhere under the lunar surface. The strength of one of the moonquakes was estimated at 5 points out of ten - if such an impulse occurs when people sink to the moon, it can destroy the spacecraft and the lunar base.
During moonquakes jolts occur muchless often than on Earth. But the oscillations can last for several hours, so scientists should choose the place for the next visitors to the Moon and build a lunar base as carefully as possible. To find calm and safe areas, more seismographs need to be installed on the satellite.
Did you know that people will again go to the moon in 2023?
Marsquakes - Earthquakes on Mars
Scientists already have evidence thatthe surface of Mars is also shaking from time to time. The causes of the marsh tremors are not yet known exactly - most likely they arise from the movement of tectonic plates. It is also quite possible that they are associated with the activity of the Olympus volcano located in the equatorial region of the planet.
Extinct (or maybe not) Olympus Volcano on Mars
The first conjectures about the existence of marshmacksappeared in 1975, when a device called “Viking” landed on the planet. As part of this mission, scientists made a big mistake by installing a seismometer not at the bottom of the device, but at the top. He was swinging heavily under the influence of the Martian wind, so even if the surface of the planet was shaking, it was almost impossible to catch these vibrations.
Science popularizer Carl Sagan and the layout of the Viking Apparatus
This issue has been fixed in the InSight machine,equipped with a SEIS seismometer. He sank to the surface of the planet at the end of 2018, and after a few months he recorded the first sounds of a marsh shake. The signal was very weak, so it is assumed that the source of the marshmallow was located deep beneath the surface of the planet. At the moment, it is believed that tremors occur quite rarely, and their frequency is even lower than on the moon.
Insect seismograph in section
Video of earthquake, moonquake and marshmakes
Want to see what happens to a person andobjects inside the room during tremors on Earth, the Moon and Mars? Scientists from the Swiss Higher Technical School of Zurich downloaded data on the frequency of oscillations of all three space objects into a computer and showed how it all happened.
Several volunteer researchers entereda special room that is controlled by a computer and shakes at different frequencies. At 0:56 minute, it is shown what happens in the room during an earthquake - the shocks are quite strong and frequent, but all this horror quickly passes. At 1:12 minutes, a moonquake is shown, during which the researchers allegedly ride in a truck - on the moon this shaking may last more than an hour. Finally, at 1:47, the marsh shake is shown - the room sways so much, and objects fall from the shelves.
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