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The physics of extraterrestrial life: aliens should be like earthlings

By the end of this century, says astrophysicist MartinRice, we should get an answer to the question of whether we live in the multiverse or not, as well as how much the laws of physics differ in their universes. The answer to this question, according to Rees, will determine “how we should interpret the“ bio-friendly ”universe in which we live (and which we share with aliens with whom we can come into contact one day)”. The same fundamental laws apply to the whole area, which we can explore with telescopes.

If it were not so - if atoms behaved“Anarchic” - we would not make any progress in understanding the observable universe. But the observed area, Rhys says, may not only be of a physical nature; Some cosmologists believe that “our” Big Bang was not the only one - and that physical reality is big enough to embrace the entire “multiverse”.

What will the aliens look like?

Even conservative astronomers, Rice concludes,“We are confident that the amount of space-time in the visibility range of our telescopes — what astronomers usually call the“ universe ”—is just a tiny fraction of the effects of the Big Bang. We assume that beyond this horizon there are many unobservable galaxies, each of which (together with intelligent life in it) develops like ours.

Charles Cokell, astrobiologist at the University of Edinburgh, suggests that life on earth can be a template for life in the universe, comparing it with a standard model of constants or equations of life.

Regardless of how differentconditions on distant planets, all of them, presumably, will have the same laws of physics - from quantum mechanics to thermodynamics and gravity. And life, according to Cokell, is simply living matter, “capable of being reproduced and evolving.” If such biology is everywhere in the Universe, we will find it not only surprisingly familiar externally, but also internally, deeply in carbon-based cell engineering.

There are equations and rules that are notlimited to living systems underlying the functioning of life. These equations, as far as we can judge, are the same in the whole Universe. To understand what life might look like in other places, we only need to study in detail how it works here.

Repeat evolution, DNA, RNA, ATP and Krebs cycle“The fundamentals of biology are most likely to happen again, here or in distant worlds,” says George Johnson of the New Yorrk Times. The solitary cells will then reconnect in search of the benefits of a metazoan life, until something like the familiar earthly menagerie appears.

The laws of biology repeat the physical laws inthat manifest everywhere - gravity, for example, exists everywhere, not only in our solar system. Restrictions are also ubiquitous - organic molecules, on Earth or elsewhere, still break up at high temperatures and deactivate at low temperatures. Certain ingredients, in most cases, are indispensable for life — carbon is the optimal element for creating a growing life, and water is the ideal solvent for moving it.

We are used to life that breathes in oxygen andexists under the blue sky. Although in nature there are many worlds similar to ours, the conditions throughout the universe will be very different. And as long as our equations work, life will appear in an infinite number of variations - each time is different - and yet similar, because its development will depend on the equations underlying the physical universe.

“The laws of physics direct sentient beings into limited forms,” he says. “They narrow the scope of evolution. Alien life can have a lot in common with life here. ”

“Go to the ocean,” says Cockell. "There are creatures with thin, streamlined bodies — and for certain reasons, to move faster in the water." It worked for hundreds of millions of years: dolphins, sharks, ichthyosaurs, mammals, fish, extinct dinosaurs - they were all outwardly comparable. Everything looks similar, even if the pedigrees are different.

On land, most animals received limbsfor movement; in the sky, whether pterodactyls or pigeons, "the laws of aerodynamics are also respected." Even butterflies, although different in patterns and colors, also have wings, following the equation. If the wing were too small, the butterfly could not fly. The details will be endless, but physics limits form.

Atoms combine to create even more complexstructures that are designed to capture energy from the environment and create copies of themselves to continue this process. This formula of life on our planet worked from the very beginning. Why won't she work in other places? Tell us in our chat in Telegram.