For about 30 years, scientists have been actively usingthe unique capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope, with which thousands of discoveries have been made. However, technology has gone far ahead and the telescope is morally obsolete, prompting NASA to begin developing a new, more advanced device. The launch of the largest telescope is scheduled for 2021.
The technical parameters of the new telescope,named James Webb, will significantly surpass Hubble. So the mirror will be three times large, and the mass will be three times smaller. In the manufacture of the mirror of the Webb telescope, beryllium was used, which ensures shape preservation at ultralow cosmic temperatures.
The operation of the telescope will provide 126 engines,which will rotate the mirror in increments of 0.0001 grain diameter of lily pollen. The reflection efficiency of the mirror is provided by gold plating. As a result, the new telescope captures 50 times more light than the infrared NASA Spitzer. The main task of the Webb orbital telescope will be to identify planets similar to the Earth and having a supply of water, as well as the study of deep space.
The telescope was developed by the NobelLaureate John Mather, who leads a team of scientists who began work back in 1996 at NASA in Maryland. At the same time, the developers were not able to realize all the ideas because of imperfect technologies and outlined 10 innovations necessary for the project.
A little later in 2007, the project was already evaluated in0.5 billion dollars. Now the price of creating a new telescope has risen to $ 10 billion. The project involves over 10 thousand specialists. The telescope will be launched into orbit in 2021 from a cosmodrome located in French Guiana, and the device will be delivered to space by the Ariane 5 launch vehicle from the European Space Agency. The working height of the telescope’s orbit is 1.61 million kilometers. Up to 458 gigabits of information will be broadcast to Earth daily for 10 years.