As you know, the creation of scientific and technicalInnovation has always been marked by certain breakthroughs in the socio-economic sphere of society. Being on the verge of completing the second decade of the 21st century, we can confidently say that the past decade was able to show the scale of such changes like nothing else. If the series of new achievements continues at the current pace, then the face of the next ten years - from information technology to applied bioscience and energy - will increasingly depend on the discoveries made during the second decade. So what kind of scientific events have become landmark in the last decade?
Discoveries of the second decade of the 21st century
According to an article published on nature.com, the development of artificial intelligence (AI) mechanisms has become one of the highest priorities of the second decade of the 21st century. So, it was in this decade that AI learned to show its power and destructive potential, and although such a revolution of machine learning touched only a few areas, for example, materials science, medicine, and quantum physics, most of us are already confident that a large amount of work performed in presently by humans, it may be faster and easier to perform inanimate AI. And although it’s too early to talk about the dangers of robot revolt, tomorrow’s machines will have to use nuanced reasoning and more accurate representations of reality, in some ways surpassing similar human indicators.
The influence of the information revolution of the second decadeThe 21st century was most strongly felt in the data-rich fields of research. Thus, the natural sciences were able to transform the study of the microbiome and genetic material of known microorganisms, fundamentally affecting the medical perception of mankind. Reprogramming mature human cells into stem cells has also become one of humanity’s main goals. The discovery of the ability to transform this type of cell into several types of tissues simultaneously opens up enormous prospects for the cultivation of new cells of almost any kind and purpose. Even today, the latest method is used in the treatment of degeneration of nerve tissue or retina, although it requires further development.
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Despite all its scandalousness, it was inIn the 2010s, CRISPR technology was first introduced, aimed at editing the human genome. If earlier everyone agreed that no scientist would go so far as to decide on a gene change in the embryo line - an egg or even an embryo, taking into account all the potential dangers for any child thus obtained, then in November 2018 the situation is fundamental way has changed. So, Chinese researcher He Jiankui announced that he used CRISPR technology to edit the gene in two newborn girls who were born as a result of in vitro fertilization, causing worldwide condemnation. Well, perhaps the question of solving the moral and ethical problems of modern science threatens to become one of the most exciting in the coming new decade.
What were the main achievements of physics in the second decade of the 21st century?
Confirmation of the location in 2008 of the famousThe Higgs boson with the help of the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva was held in 2012 - the beginning of the second decade of the outgoing decade. When four years later, the researchers announced the discovery of gravitational waves, thereby once again confirming the theory of relativity of Einstein, mankind managed to advance a little in search of its place in the universe. With the advent of new detectors and the powerful modernization of existing instruments, gravitational waves are now officially recognized phenomena, along with the usual electromagnetic frequencies and radio waves.
The creation was marked in exactly the same way.the first quantum computers by IBM and Google, which, among other things, began to fight for the primacy of gaining the most powerful quantum-bit arrays. Perhaps the outcome of such a competition between the two giants of the modern digital industry, we will be able to observe at the beginning of the new decade. While the whole world is following the news from the United States, China does not stand still, becoming the first state in the world to use quantum teleportation to securely transmit data via satellite and fiber optic network on the way to creating a full-fledged quantum Internet.
Bothering the pace of global warmingmost clearly manifested in the last decade. So, the second half of the decade, starting in 2015, turned out to be the warmest over the past five years, according to the World Meteorological Organization. Such indicators mean that the 2020s will be decisive for the fate of mankind. If carbon dioxide emissions are not drastically reduced by 2030, we risk stepping into an unknown territory, which includes the possibility of widespread loss of Antarctic ice and flooding of a huge number of coastal regions of most continents.
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