One of the most difficult to solve puzzlesmodern cosmology is the process of galaxy formation. How a huge variety of structured and dynamic objects could emerge from the chaos of the Big Bang is a real puzzle for scientists. Trying to understand exactly how and why the very fateful moment of the mega-explosion of our universe occurred, an international team of scientists created the most detailed large-scale model of the Universe in the history of mankind. The simulation, dubbed TNG50, is located in virtual space with a width of about 230 million light years, with tens of thousands of galaxies, nebulae, stars, black holes and even dark matter.
What does the universe look like?
TNG50 is the latest simulationof our Universe, created by the IllustrisTNG project, whose goal is to build the most complete picture of how our Universe began to develop after the Big Bang. The incredible resolution and scale allowed scientists to find key information about the past of our universe, revealing how stellar explosions and black holes caused a real galactic evolution.
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Specialists from the University of Florida note thatto create a unique model of the universe, they needed 16 thousand processor cores of the Hazel Hen supercomputer located in Stuttgart, Germany. In order to analyze the entire amount of data provided, the computer worked continuously for more than a year, although a similar process would take about 15,000 years for a regular operating system. Despite the huge energy costs that accompanied the process, scientists believe that the results of the experiment completely paid off. So, the TNG50 project allowed researchers to observe with their own eyes how our galaxy arose from turbulent clouds of gas that appeared shortly after the birth of the Universe.
Researchers found that oncegas-dust clouds began to turn into more or less ordered rotating disks, another phenomenon began to appear. The constant explosions of supernovae and the supermassive black holes that arise in their place created high-speed flows, which subsequently turned into gas fountains, rising thousands of light-years above the galaxy. Subsequently, gravity pulled most of this gas back to the emerging galaxy, creating a reverse loop of the outflow and influx of matter.
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Despite the results, the team fromThe University of Florida is still far from completing an analysis of its model. After carrying out all the necessary manipulations to study the simulated Universe, experts plan to publish all the simulation data in the public domain for astronomers from around the world.