Stem cells for quite a long time (and evenvery successfully) are used in the so-called regenerative medicine. However, as it turned out, there are more perfect structures in our body that can give a new impetus to the development of new technologies for the treatment of various diseases. These structures are called “extracellular vesicles,” and earlier it was thought that they had practically no useful function.
In general, there are 4 types of vesicles, but they allthey are small vesicles secreted by cells of various tissues or organs into the surrounding space. They are available not only in tissues, but also in all biological fluids. Previously it was thought that vesicles were a kind of “waste material” and only diagnostics of various conditions used them.
But a group of French researchers, studyingvesicles, came to the conclusion that some of them have properties that are inherent in stem cells. Moreover, at the same time, vesicles do not have the ability to independently divide or modify, and therefore virtually eliminate the risk of developing complications such as cancer that can develop as a result of stem cell therapy.
During a series of experiments, scientists took the usualdomestic pigs who were diagnosed with intestinal fistula. Fistulas are, in fact, anomalies in the development of the digestive tract, when intestinal loops have holes in the internal environment of the body, each other or adjacent organs. Using extracellular vesicles obtained from adipose tissue stem cells, the experts created a special gel, the injections of which led to the complete closure of defects without any surgical intervention. As reported by the authors of the work,
“Wound healing occurs at 100%. In this case, the gel helped 67% of the animals from the study group. Healing in the control group that did not receive treatment was 0%. ”
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