Scientists have improved sodium-sulfur batteries and evenmade them more efficient than lithium-ion. In traditional sodium-sulfur batteries, the anode is liquid sodium, the electrolyte is solid non-stoichiometric sodium aluminate, and the cathode is liquid elemental sulfur mixed with graphite. The scientists decided to use carbon-based electrodes and a thermal decomposition process to change the reaction between sodium and sulfur.
As a result, they were able to increase the capacity of the batteries andextend their service life. The final battery rating is 1017 mAh/g at room temperature. This is four times more than a lithium-ion battery. In addition, the development retained about half the capacity after 1000 recharge cycles.