The volume of the sound, like that of many other things,there is a limit. So, outdoors, the maximum noise level can reach 194 decibels, and under water - 270 decibels. Recreating maximum volume levels is extremely difficult, but researchers from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University tried to do this. In the course of the experiment, they achieved that the volume of the sound under water reached the very limit of 270 decibels - this required thin trickles of water and a powerful laser.
Physicists have noted that sound is physicala phenomenon that is created by a pressure wave. At zero decibel level, there are no waves, and at maximum volume the medium through which the sound passes begins to collapse without letting it become even louder. The same thing happens when cooling and heating materials - there are some limits that cannot be overcome.
To recreate the loudest underwater sound,scientists used a coherent light emission device, the Linac Coherent Light Source, which is essentially an incredibly powerful X-ray laser. It was directed to microscopic streams of water, the thickness of which ranged from 14 to 30 micrometers. When short X-ray pulses fell into the water, it evaporated and created shock waves, which became sources of loud sound.
The researchers noticed that when the sound intensity reached its maximum level, the water turned into small bubbles filled with steam, which immediately burst during the cavitation process.
This is not the first time we are talking about X-rayLinac Coherent Light Source. Back in 2017, scientists used it for a previously unimaginable experiment, during which they independently created a one-atom molecular black hole.
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