Research, Technology

Sarmat - doomsday rocket

"Sarmat" - intercontinental ballisticrocket, which in the West was nicknamed "Satan 2.0". Why such a strange name? According to NATO representatives, only Satan 2.0 can be worse than “Satan”. And to some extent they are right, the frightening name fully reflects the nature of the rocket. According to the head of Roscosmos Dmitry Rogozin, one ICBM "Sarmat" is capable of destroying half of the coast of an enemy continent. Most likely, this is an exaggeration, but it is quite clear that in the event of a nuclear strike, these weapons are capable of destroying all life on the vast territory of our planet. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the Sarmat in more detail, its features and differences from conventional intercontinental ballistic missiles, which are already in service with the Russian army.

The latest intercontinental ballistic missile "Sarmat"

"Sarmat" rocket and its concept

The Sarmat missile system was created to replaceSoviet rocket R-36M2 "Voevoda", known in the West as "Satan". The new ICBM, unlike its predecessor, is focused on delivering a smaller number of warheads, but in such a way and along such trajectories that reduce the risk of their destruction by modern air defense systems. Simply put, Sarmat has increased efficiency.

Reportedly, the ICBM can carry out"orbital bombardment", which allows a suborbital trajectory to strike across the South Pole. What does it mean? The warheads fly around the deployed NATO anti-missile systems THAAD and from the orbit (suborbit) of the Earth rush at hypersonic speed to the target.

The Voevoda missile achieved efficiency indue to the large number of warheads. That is, the calculation was made on the fact that all the warheads of the missile defense system cannot be shot down, which means that some of them will definitely reach the target. That is, efficiency was achieved through quantity, not quality.

The Sarmat missile was created to replace the Voevoda ICBM, which was called Satan in the West

The need to create a new rocket arosedue to the fact that the Voevoda ICBM is technically outdated. Its ability to overcome modern missile defense systems is rather low. The new missile not only flies in a safe orbit, but also has a number of modern means of protection against missile defense. In particular, it has guided warheads that are capable of changing the trajectory. It is also equipped with more so-called decoys.

Special attention deserves a complex of activeprotection "Mozyr". It is capable of attacking and destroying warheads above the mine. Protection is implemented with the help of hundreds of artillery barrels, which shoot a large number of arrows and balls over the launch shaft. Despite the fact that the warhead destruction system itself is quite simple and cheap, it contains modern radars and computers that are responsible for target detection and trajectory calculation. That is, it is a complex modern equipment.

I must say that "Sarmat" can be used not only for military purposes. It can launch satellites and spacecraft. For example, in this way it can be disposed of.

Controlled warhead "Vanguard"

Controlled warhead "Avangard"

One of the features of the Sarmat missile system- controlled warhead "Vanguard". It allows the use of ICBM strikes in local wars, hitting strategic targets not with a nuclear explosion, but with kinetic energy. We talked about kinetic weapons in more detail earlier. But this is not the only advantage of the Avangard warhead.

Hypersonic maneuvering warheads, as alreadyas mentioned above, they are practically invulnerable to missile defense systems, like other hypersonic weapons. In addition, due to the ability to maneuver, they are highly accurate and can even hit moving targets. In particular, according to some sources, they can destroy ships.

Warhead "Vanguard" can hit strategic targets due to kinetic energy

For the possibility of "orbital bombardment"the system of leaving a circular orbit by using deceleration pulses is impossible, since in 1967 an agreement was concluded between the USSR and the USA, according to which it is forbidden to use nuclear weapons in orbit. To get around this prohibition, the rocket must use a sub-orbital trajectory that is slightly shorter than a circular orbit.

To enter suborbita, the engines give out a littleless power than is required to launch warheads into a full circular orbit. The final part of the flight is carried out in the atmosphere, and the warheads fly in the atmosphere longer than traditional ICBMs. This complicates the development of missile defense capable of eliminating them.

It must be said that recently Russia in generalsignificantly advanced in the development of weapons against which there are no defense systems. A vivid confirmation of this is the Zircon hypersonic missile.

Tentatively, the development of the Sarmat missile began in 2013.

Missile system "Sarmat" - characteristics and development

The development of the ICBM "Sarmat" was carried out by the SRC.Makeev. There is no exact information about the start of development, but it is known that NPO Energomash received an order to develop the engine in 2013. Its first successful tests took place three years later.

Three throws took place in 2018test launches of "Sarmat" from the Plesetsk test site. "Throw test" is an experiment in which the rocket exits the shaft and the engine is started. In other words, the very first stage of the launch is being worked out. I must say, initially it was believed that the rocket had only two stages, but after the appearance of official images, it turned out that it was a three-stage one.

In April of this year, the Russian Ministry of Defense announcedthe first full-fledged launch of the Sarmat ICBM from the same cosmodrome in the Arkhangelsk region. The tests were also successful. It is expected that in 2022 the first serial samples of the missile will begin to arrive in the 62nd and 13th missile divisions. The rocket will be produced at the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant.

According to experts, Sarmat will provide Russia with a nuclear shield for the next 30-40 years

According to reports, Sarmat missiles do not needbuild new mine launchers. Only minimal modification of the existing mines will be required. Some experts argue that the missiles will be produced in two versions - for strikes against Western Europe and the United States. The range of the second type missile is 16,000 km. Its weight reaches 150-200 tons, and the payload reaches 5 tons. A missile aimed at Western Europe is lighter due to a smaller volume of fuel. Its weight is 100-120 tons, and the flight range is 9-10 thousand km.

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One missile can carry 10-15 warheads, but the number of warheads depends on their power.
For example, when using 10 warheads,the power of each of them is estimated at 750 kt. But these data relate to conventional combat elements. In the case of modern maneuvering warheads, there may be as few as three, each weighing about a ton.

But, it should be borne in mind that information about the rocketclassified. Therefore, the given data is not official, and is collected from various sources. It is possible that the data will be corrected in the future. And finally, we recommend finding out what will happen to the Earth in the event of a nuclear war, if these missiles are ever used.