General

Pre-installation of Russian OS on all computers. Bill of the Ministry of Digital Development

Hello.

I really don’t want to grumble, but then there is only one choice left - to remain silent. Can't afford this either.

I can, as it unfolds before our eyesa strange situation, the Ministry of Digital Development is trying to expand the law on presets as much as possible, to bring new categories of goods under its action, for example, all computers. Let me remind you that the law on presets, adopted earlier, obliges electronics suppliers to install one or another software on their devices, the list of which is determined by the government of the Russian Federation. Initially, the law was adopted to promote Russian applications on smartphones, their list caused repeated scandals, as the requirements were constantly changing, looked surprising and sometimes baffled. On the technical side, the law turned out to be not just crude, but completely ignoring reality; officials sincerely believed that they could break Apple's business model and force more than a dozen applications to be installed on the iPhone / iPad. Apple acted gracefully and began to offer a list of applications recommended by law, but not put them in the device memory. So presets turned into proposals, it turned out that Apple, which has complete control over both software and hardware, did not have the technical ability to comply with the law. And the officials did not have the technical ability to push through their line. Very quickly, Android manufacturers began to do exactly the same thing, not to install applications, but to offer them for download, it's cheaper and easier.

Initially, the law was lobbied by Yandex, a companyI tried to get up for free on all smartphones in Russia, not to pay for the preset. But the lack of technical expertise of the creators of this document led to the exact opposite consequences, the prices of devices rose slightly, applications almost did not appear anywhere. With the transition to parallel imports, everything became even more interesting, manufacturers ignore the requirements of the law, since formally none of them work in Russia. Moreover, for Huawei, the installation of applications required by Russian law means an indirect recognition that the company operates in the Russian market. None of the manufacturers want to risk being sanctioned, and they all avoid even circumstantial evidence that they are following Russia's preinstallation law. It is curious that Samsung smartphones that come to Russia from Kazakhstan also do not have pre-installed applications. There are many examples, there is exactly one reason - companies are afraid to fall under sanctions and leave a minimal trace, they try not to inherit, and even with full control of supplies, they arrange everything so that this is a personal initiative of some companies within the framework of parallel imports, and they are neither sleep nor spirit . All manufacturers do this, there are simply no exceptions.

Press conferences are now like a meetingunderground revolutionary circles, no signs on the street, no signs. At the entrance, you are informed that a closed event is taking place and you must be on the list. I watched how one Chinese company refused to visit a journalist that he had brought a “plus one” with him, his girlfriend remained outside the door, he went to the event. Crazy NDAs in which you have to promise that you will never tell anyone that you saw company representatives, were with them, you will not tell anything about the company's products in terms of the Russian market (!!!). That is, the scheme is approximately as follows: at such and such a retail network “unexpectedly” new items appeared on sale, oh what good fellows, they brought them with the help of parallel imports. We “unexpectedly” write at X hour about our “find”.

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Against this background, the law on presets simply does notworks, it cannot work. Officials have ended up with nothing, but continue to pretend that everything is going according to plan and presets exist. Manufacturers are between a rock and a hard place, they periodically do something when they call: come to the company's store with the letter M, which is located near the 1905 metro station, on the second floor you can see rows of telephones. It seems the third model in the second row will tell you our position. Then a publication appears: the correspondent of the publication “Wet Pants” made sure on his own that company X pre-installs Russian applications on its phones. Circus performances that all market participants perform and consider it normal. As if sanctions need some reason other than the presence of equipment on store shelves. I think that everyone understands this, but they are engaged in self-soothing nonsense, so that later they can say with full responsibility: “We made every effort so that nothing bad happened, but the circumstances were above us.”

The context of the Russian market is important, without it to understandwhat happens will be difficult, if not impossible in principle. The latest attempt to make the preset law work is to shift the responsibility to retail players, the fiction of officials has no limits. Let's oblige stores to install Russian applications from the list when selling, and if they sell smartphones without them, we will begin to punish them with fines. Madness in full growth, since we have a complete misunderstanding of how a modern smartphone works. To install some software, you need to have a user account, or put it under your own, which will automatically lead to its removal during the initial setup by the user. Let's add here the opened boxes, fingered devices, and the picture will be complete.

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Russian OS for each computer in retail

Now the Ministry of Digital Development proposes to go further andinstall Russian operating systems on all computers that are sold in Russia, without exception. Here the situation is simpler in theory, since you can put a second one in parallel to the main system, and this is possible both in Windows and MacOS, not to mention Linux versions, but the latter remain exotic. In Mintsifra, four Linux distributions are considered Russian OS: Astra Linux, Alt Linux, ROSA and RED OS. The question of how Russian they are remains open, but in the context of today's topic, this is not very important.

Manufacturers will not install Russian OS ontheir computers, they simply do not need it, why bring themselves under sanctions? Therefore, the Ministry of Digital Development sincerely believes that retail stores can do this. It seems that in the eyes of officials, a retail store is a place of superpower, where people work, who blindly install an Alt Linux distribution on a MacBook, do a parallel download, and all this in a matter of seconds. Why they are constantly trying to appoint business as the scapegoats in this story is not clear to me.

Retail chains sell goods, they do notmanufacturers, not software creators, and cannot perform functions that are unusual for them. Moreover, the technical illiteracy of the proposal shows a total ignorance of Russian realities. Let's take, for example, consumer extremism, when a person deliberately turns schemes in which he receives certain benefits. For example, he uses a computer for a year, and then turns to a retail store with a “problem”. He is denied compensation, but he goes to court, where with a high degree of probability he can prove that such problems exist. For example, his printer is not compatible with the computer, drivers do not work. The courts are overwhelmed with such cases, they are few in percentage of all sales, but in absolute numbers there are thousands of cases, and the volume of claims goes to millions of rubles every month.

Now imagine that a retail store withinlaw forced to put the Russian assembly of Linux. A dishonest consumer buys such a product, uses it, and then tries to hand it over under the pretext that there are no drivers, nothing works as it should. The ideal case, you buy a gaming computer with an NVidia video card, then prove that there are no drivers for it, and it just sits idle, and you were deceived. It doesn't matter that all this time you have been playing different games non-stop, you will rely on Linux problems.

Given that the lack of drivers is a commonthe problem of Linux builds, then it will not be solved in one day. Manufacturers will not write drivers for the Russian market in the current situation. The retail store that modified the computer is now responsible for it. The electronic guarantee starts ticking from the moment the second OS is installed (if the manufacturer is in Russia and services the devices, or it is outside the country, it is exactly the same there, the counter starts ticking). Why is it needed in this form and to whom?

Let's imagine a situation.You buy a new MacBook Pro, not the cheapest laptop on the market. In retail, they tell you that there is a law on pre-installation and they put a Russian OS on you, that is, they opened the device and did something with it. It is not clear who did it, it is not clear who is responsible for this (of course, retail, although it will refuse it). You don't need Limux on a MacBook, as it hurts.

It's easier to go to the gray market, where prices will be lower andbuy a laptop there. That is, the actions of officials push people to the gray market, where goods are sold without paying taxes, the state loses money from this. It turns out that we are driving civilized business behind the plinth with our own hands, developing gray schemes. One question - why? Those who come up with all this part-time trading on Gorbushka and holding points there? That would explain a lot.

OS pre-installation in retail stores isa bad idea, it won't work in practice. I can think of several ways that will help to avoid the operation of this law, and the state will have to prove long and hard in the person of its officials that they did not mean it. To begin with, turning a computer into a build kit is very easy. A couple of minutes and a brand new laptop in your base turns into a kit for building a computer at home, the law does not apply to it. And they will sell such kits all over the country. This kind of contrivance can come up with a wagon and a small cart;

For what? Question to try to answer

Every time we need to ask the question whysome action is needed. Pre-installation of Russian OS on computers does not mean that someone will use them. We already see this in the pre-installation of applications on Android, everything is transparent and understandable there, the law does not work as intended. With computers, everything is somewhat worse, since this is not even an application, but an environment in which we all work. For example, I am omnivorous and can work in any OS, but it’s another matter that I don’t see much point in it, I use the system that is on my computer - MacOS or Windows, it doesn’t matter.

Most people have historically attached themselves toany one system, most choose Windows. A year ago I tried Russian Linux, amid discussions that we could be turned off all technologies. You can work, there is not enough certain convenience and drivers for peripherals. But you can live if life forces you. At the moment I didn’t force it, so I just left it on one of the old computers just in case. Let it be, after all, it does not ask for food.

Retraining a person from Windows to work in Linux is notsomething that is impossible, but this requires a very strong incentive. It is not observed on the horizon, there is not a single example of the same Windows being blocked in some country of the world and it was not possible to use this product. Not a single example! Suppose our officials suspect that our country may be the first such example. And then it is clear that it is easier to distribute distributions with new PCs in order to prepare for such a scenario. Unlikely, but this is at least some answer to the question “Why”.

But in parallel, we are teaching children at schoolwork in the Windows environment, with the Microsoft office suite. From a young age, children are taught not to think, but to work mindlessly in the same applications that are predetermined from the very beginning. This is Microsoft's strategy, and it is convenient for the company, but why are we repeating it, especially now, when all training programs had to be revised, the emphasis is on Russian software. After all, if we started to run in this direction as a country, then just in 5-7 years, when today's schoolchildren enter adulthood, they will have the opportunity to work on Russian operating systems and application software. But they need to be taught not in the future, but today, to instill the ability to write text, not only in MS Word or Pages, but in any text editor. The situation still drives me into a stupor when journalists explain the absence of a text from some trip by the fact that their Word broke, they could not write it. And this is sincerely true, they are not trying to freebie. I saw a man with my own eyes that instead of using a notepad, in the end, the mail application on a laptop, he wrote his report on his phone in MS Word. This is the power of binding to a particular brand. And we as a country are not doing anything in this direction.

The preset will allow you to report on the successfulsuccess, the number of installations of Russian operating systems will increase. But not the number of those who use them. Plus intervention in the system, incomprehensible software that can be installed in parallel (hello viruses, trojans and the list goes on). And it will be the problem of the consumer.

If we want Russian software to develop,then we need a comprehensive program that promotes it. For example, many will choose a computer with a Russian build of Linux if such an offer is cheaper than the same computer with Windows. But people need to know what they are choosing, not to buy a pig in a poke.

It baffles me that an attempt to putRussian OS is distributed to all computers, it might be worth starting with state corporations, officials and successively transplanting them to our software. There are many hidden opportunities here, in particular, officials will become the very beta testers who will begin to demand improved UI, adding new features, drivers for peripherals, and so on. Perhaps that would be the best solution for everyone.

You can't force someone to use whatему не нужно. Нельзя навязывать покупателю конкретные решения просто так, когда для этого нет серьезных причин. Сделайте так, чтобы мы хотели ставить российский софт, сегодня для этого есть все предпосылки. Но не навязывайте, это вызывает исключительно отторжение и ничего более.

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