“Quantum physics is so complex that no onedoes not understand,” wrote Nobel laureate Richard Feynman. And this is not surprising, since even Albert Einstein was wary of it, calling the phenomenon of quantum entanglement "supernatural" and "spooky." The Irish theoretical physicist John Bell and other founders of this theory doubted the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics. But despite the controversy and disagreement, the mysterious world of elementary particles has become the driver of modern civilization: the Internet, computers, smartphones, lasers, fiber optic networks and nuclear energy exist thanks to the science of quantum. Just imagine what further discoveries can lead to, of which there are more and more every year. So, in 2022, three scientists who independently carried out experiments with entangled photons, sensor technologies and secure information transfer became the winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics. By the way, not without quantum teleportation, but first things first.
- 1 Nobel Prize 2022
- 2 Entanglement and inequality
- 3 Crazy experiments
- 4 Quantum information
Nobel Prize 2022
Every year the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciencescelebrates outstanding discoveries in various fields of science, contributing to its development and popularization in society. In just a few years, advances in science and technology have allowed physicists to confirm the existence of black holes and gravitational waves, develop physical models of the Earth's climate, and even discover distant exoplanets orbiting sun-like stars—each of which has won a Nobel Prize.
Recall that the Nobel Prize is awarded fordiscoveries in the field of physiology and medicine, physics, chemistry, economic sciences, literature and peacekeeping. We talked more about the award and its founder here, we recommend that you read
In 2022, the Nobel Prize winners forphysicists were Alain Aspe, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger. Three physicists have been awarded the prize for quantum entanglement experiments based on the work of such eminent scientists as Niels Bohr, Albert Einstein and John Bell, all of whom wanted to understand the nature of the strange behavior of elementary particles that can be far apart while maintaining communication with each other.
According to representatives of the Royal SwedishAcademy of Sciences, in the future, the work of Aspe, Clauser and Zeilinger will play an important role in the field of quantum computing and secure data transmission, opening a new chapter in the history of quantum mechanics. Interestingly, the researchers worked independently trying to explain the "creepy" phenomenon of entangled elementary particles.
More on the topic: Secrets of quantum mechanics - what is quantum entanglement?
Confusion and Inequality
So, according to the principles of quantum mechanics,particles can exist simultaneously in two or more places, and also do not acquire formal properties until they are observed. But as soon as someone traces the position or “rotation” of one elementary particle, he becomes an observer of its partner (regardless of the distance between the particles). It is this interaction that makes quantum mechanics look like magic. But how to understand the reasons for this phenomenon?
Let's imagine a car with two "entangled" balls inside and we can't see them. The only thing known about them is their gray color and two possible characteristics - balls can only be white and black. But as soon as the car throws them in opposite directions at the same time, the observer catches the ball and sees that it is white - at the same second the second ball turns black.
You might be wondering: Does quantum mechanics imply a plurality of worlds, or what is Everett's interpretation?
This strange phenomenon has been explained by"Bell's inequality", according to which particles can contain secret information or "hidden variables" that determine their properties. If Bell is right, then the system should have hidden options, confirming the hypothesis of local realism in which physical objects exist and affect their immediate environment.
In 1972, John Clauser and his late colleague Stuart Friedman set out to test Bell's assumptions by showing that particles, in this case photons, do not contain hidden information. The approach of American physicists was to transfer the properties of one particle to another, despite the large distances between them.
If explained on balls, then in the abovescripts, there is no hidden information about their properties. In this case, the color of the ball that fell into the hands of the observer will be determined randomly. Needless to say, in the 1970s, the academic community did not take such assumptions seriously.
My supervisor thought that entanglement experiments were a terrible waste of time and that I was ruining my career,” Clauser said in an interview with The Washington Post.
Fortunately, Clauser was not the only physicistflirting with entanglement—his French colleague Alain Aspe at the University of Paris-Saclay conducted similar experiments in the 1980s, and Anton Zeilinger at the University of Vienna in the 1990s studied entangled quantum systems involving more than two particles. He suggested that entangled states are the key to creating new ways of storing, transmitting and processing information.
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Representatives of the Nobel Committee are confident that in the future, innovative experiments can lead to the creation of quantum teleportation. It sounds provocative, so let's be clear - we are not talking about teleporting a person from one place to another, as, for example, in the Star Trek series. Alas, such teleportation is the lot of science fiction.
As Aspe, Clauser and Zeilinger explain, the phenomenonThe entanglement of quantum particles can transfer information about an object from one place to another, but this is impossible with large objects - today scientists can only move particles, regardless of their mass (due to the principle of organizing atoms).
The experiments performed have shown that the behavior"entangled" quantum particles completely contradicts our ideas about how independent individual objects should behave, ”the Nobel Committee said in a statement.
But what about quantum technologies?In 2016, Zeilinger's former student Jian-Wei Pang led a Chinese research team that launched the Micius satellite into orbit, carrying a pair of photons more than 1,000 kilometers apart without changing their entangled state.
quantum teleportation allows you to move a quantum state from one particle to another, being the only way to transfer quantum information without a single loss.
It's hard to believe, but such a demonstrationquantum properties paves the way for the creation of new tools for the transmission of information, totally protected from "hacking". Researchers hope that in the future more devices will leave the lab and conquer the real world. Ultimately, the potential applications of the principles of quantum mechanics seem limitless. What do you think, what discoveries await us in the future? The answer, as always, is waiting here and in the comments to this article!