We can assume that diamonds are noware the best friends of not only girls but also scientists. However, do not forget that a diamond is a faceted diamond, and in this article we will focus on a natural mineral. A student at the University of Alberta (Canada) discovered a new mineral that was previously unknown to nature inside diamond. The diamond itself was found in a mine in South Africa. The mineral was named after the founder of modern geochemistry, Victor Moritz Goldschmidt.
What are diamonds made of?
So diamond is the hardest of allnaturally occurring minerals. It is extracted from alluvial deposits or the so-called kimberlite pipes. For the first time, these brilliant pebbles were discovered by chance in the city of Kimberley in South Africa in 1870. Since then, all the minerals of this breed are called kimberlites. The largest diamond deposits are in Australia, Russia, Canada and Africa.
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Diamond is unique in that it consists ofmainly one element - crystalline carbon, which has amazing properties. It is no secret that diamond has the highest melting point, the highest hardness and low coefficient of friction. The value of this mineral is measured in special units called carats. One carat is 0.2 grams. As a rule, all diamonds are lightweight, but larger stones are also found.
So, the largest diamond in the world was discovered inSouth American Piner mine in 1905. The mineral is called Cullinan. Its mass is 621.35 grams. Cullinan was presented as a gift to the English king Edward VII on his birthday. His Royal Highness commissioned to split the diamond. As a result, Cullinan was divided into 2 large monolithic blocks, 7 medium fragments and about a hundred tiny ones.
What mineral was found in Goldschmidt?
A study on the discovery of a new diamond insideThe mineral was published in the journal American Mineralogist. According to experts, Goldschmidt has an unusual chemical characteristic for a mineral from the mantle of the Earth. Goldschmidtit contains a high concentration of elements such as potassium, naobium, cerium and lanthanum. Moreover, in the rest of the Earth’s mantle completely different elements prevail, for example magnesium and iron.
Experts agree that in orderso that nabium and potassium are a component of the main part of the mineral, a diamond must be formed as a result of truly exceptional processes. According to researchers, Goldschmidt formed at a depth of about 170 km, at temperatures that reached almost 1200 degrees Celsius.
To get more information about chemistryprocesses taking place deep underground, scientists are concentrating on incredibly small mineral inclusions inside diamonds. In the end, it is much easier than trying to break through the earth's crust.
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Note that this study is workan international group of scientists, which includes mineralologists, technical experts, and researchers from various universities. This discovery allows us to get an idea of the processes that occur deep below the surface of our planet and affect the process of diamond formation.