Imagine that you want to get to Vyborg fromSt. Petersburg. When you drive coordinates into the navigator, the program calculates the approximate travel time from one city to another based on current traffic. And if a traffic jam formed in St. Petersburg outside the city, the extra time spent on traffic jam will be included in the estimate. Of course, you will not be aware of all stages of the trip, moreover, while you are driving around the city, the traffic jam may resolve. In approximately the same way, scientists calculate the approximate life expectancy. According to the results of a new study, the reason why a woman lives longer than men was very unexpected.
How is life expectancy calculated?
As The Conversation writes, the expectedlife span consists of many small pieces, one for each age and demographers can choose these pieces separately. Scientists from the University of Southern Denmark and the University of Groningen have published the results of their work in the journal BMC Public Health. Researchers studied part of the life expectancy of high-income people in North America, Europe, and Oceania between the ages of 50 and 85 between 1950 and 2015. It turned out that in the 1950s, men lived about two and a half years less than women. And in the 1980s, this difference increased to four and a half years. Then in 2015, the difference in life expectancy decreased to a new minimum - about two years. The result was unexpected - all this increase and the subsequent decrease was associated with smoking. Quitting smoking equalizes the difference in life expectancy between 50 and 85 years for two years. Who would have thought?
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The epidemic of smoking
Smoking slowly destroys the body. Since historically men started smoking before women and much more, any effect of smoking on life expectancy is primarily manifested in men. While scientists and doctors have been researching the dangers of smoking, women are also addicted to this addiction. Now, decades later, mortality due to the health effects of smoking among men is decreasing, but increasing in older women who smoked in the past. This gives rise to a scheme called the “smoking epidemic”: first men smoke, then men begin to die from smoking, at about the same time as women start smoking, then women begin to die from smoking.
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At the final stage of the smoking epidemic, peoplefinally become smarter and quit smoking. This last stage of the smoking epidemic, however, is more complex. But people continue to smoke today. Moreover, many addicted to electronic cigarettes and vapes, which caused several deaths in the United States. However, a study by scientists showed good news. Recently, there has been a significant reduction in smoking deaths among people around the age of 50. While some people continue to smoke, at least some people think that tobacco is a killer.