Research, Technology

Is it possible to prove the existence of wormholes? Scientists think so

Among the many cosmic mysteries of the "wormhole"are particularly popular. With their help, blockbuster heroes travel through different universes, but in reality the so-called Einstein-Rosen bridge is a mathematical addition to the general theory of relativity (GR). In 1916, mathematician Nathan Rosen and physicist Albert Einstein drew attention to the solution of the simplest GR equations describing isolated sources of a gravitational field. Scientists have suggested that this spatial structure is like a "bridge" connecting two identical universes (or two different points in space-time). Subsequently, these structures were called "wormholes" (from the English "wormhole" - "wormhole"), but their existence has not been proven. But despite their hypothetical status, wormholes are constantly present in equations and help astrophysicists describe the structure of the Universe, the movement of stars, planets and other celestial objects. But if they really exist, is it possible to find them? Let's figure it out!

Scientists represent a wormhole, or as it is also commonly called, a wormhole in the form of a tunnel located between two whirlpools of light.

Gravity waves - changes in the gravitational field, propagating like waves.

Content

  • 1 Black holes and scientific facts
  • 2 Tunnel in space-time
  • 3 Exotic Energy
  • 4 Wormholes and quantum theory

Black holes and scientific facts

Black holes have long existed only inequations, and Einstein was sure that it was impossible to detect them. Just imagine what his reaction would be to the stunning successes of modern science - in 2016, scientists from the LIGO and VIRGO laboratories recorded gravitational waves emanating from the collision of two black holes (which are 29 and 36 times the size of our Sun).

Physicists were awarded for their workNobel Prize in 2017, and two years later, the astonished public viewed the first-ever image of the “shadow” of a black hole. We talked about this historical event and how scientists managed to photograph a black hole here, don't miss it!

This is the first photo of the shadow of a black hole called Sagittarius A. Beauty!

Black hole is a region of spacetime whose gravitational pull is so strong that even the quanta of light itself cannot leave it.

Today no one doubts the existenceblack holes. These objects are real and supposedly at the center of most galaxies in the universe. True, to recognize the reality and consider this scientific theory seriously of our civilization it took… 50 years. The cosmic monsters were replaced by wormholes, the existence of which is now in question, since physicists themselves do not understand whether wormholes should be taken seriously.

More on the topic: Space Music: What Black Holes Sound Like

Tunnel in space-time

So, according to physical theory, a wormholeresemble a tunnel that can be used for fast space flights from one end of the universe to another. Theoretically, they can not only reduce the distance between galaxies (from millions of years to hours or minutes under the right conditions), but even use them as a time machine.

As our readers probably know, Einstein's GRalmost every year receives confirmation, and some scientists are convinced of the existence of wormholes. But there is a small problem with this story: wormholes are extremely unstable. This means that the space-time tunnels cannot remain open for long (for something or someone to pass through).

Wormholes connect different parts of the universe and possibly different universes

Scientists call the points where you enter and exit the wormhole “mouths,” and the tunnel itself is called the “throat.”

In 1988, physicist Kip Thorne of the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology suggested that wormholes could be kept open using an exotic form of energy - matter with negative mass that repels other (known to us) matter from itself. For this reason, many researchers believe that tiny wormholes with exotic energy appeared shortly after the Big Bang and became thinner and longer as the universe expanded.

In this case, it is about Casimir effect, which explains the mutual attraction of conducting uncharged bodies under the action of quantum fluctuations in vacuum. It is this negative energy acts against gravity, keeping the wormhole afloat.

If wormholes really exist, then they are arranged in this way.

You might be wondering: Could the ripples of space-time point to wormholes?

exotic energy

Given the growing interest in wormholes, physicist Luke Butcher of the University of Cambridge concluded that the shape of the wormhole itself is capable of generating Casimir energy.

If the mouth of the wormhole is several orders of magnitudelonger than the width of its mouth, an exotic energy is created at its center, due to which the wormhole can remain open long enough for a pulse of light to pass through it, Butcher explains.

References to "wormholes" can be found in science fiction. Such holes allow you to quickly travel through space and time.

And if wormhole mouths can exist indifferent points in time, then theoretically suitable for travel through space and time. But as much as we would like to discover these objects and travel to other worlds (or across the expanses of the Universe), science is far from translating theoretical equations into physical objects.

Read more about whether humans will ever be able to travel through wormholes here.

This, however, does not prevent wormholes from strikingour imagination. Moreover, in a sense, these objects are a delightful form of escapism. Unlike the frightening black holes (which trap anything that gets inside), wormholes could allow us to travel through the ocean of space at faster-than-light speeds.

Wormholes and quantum theory

The connection of wormholes with quantum theory is alsointeresting phenomenon. Since at the micro level everything around us (and ourselves) is made up of atoms and particles, they can appear in empty space only to disappear in a moment. At the same time, a number of recent experiments have shown that quantum information can be transferred from one place to another.

From this point of view, wormholes are like black holes interconnected, experts say.

Black holes and wormholes may be inextricably linked.

Fortunately, the fact that quantum physics playsimportant role in the existence of wormholes is unlikely to go unnoticed. Of course, so far no one has seen these objects, but this does not mean that space tunnels do not exist in nature.

Ultimately, wormholes can helpscientists to understand the innermost mysteries of the universe. And, no less interesting, to prove the existence of the Multiverse. Do you think we will find out the answers to these questions in the next 10 years? Share your thoughts, as always, here and in the comments to this article!