Regular bouts of malaria, deadly formstuberculosis, persistent outbreaks of syphilis, as well as rotting wounds and cuts were a frequent threat to the life of our ancestors. Modern mankind has been much more fortunate: thanks to the development of ever new ways to prevent epidemics, the population of our planet can safely prevent outbreaks of diseases not only among people, but also in many species of animals. Be that as it may, in the 21st century, other diseases, non-communicable, began to threaten the well-being of people. But what if we are mistaken in underestimating some “non-contagious” diseases for their contagiousness?
What are non-contagious diseases?
According to official statistics, about 41million people die every year due to diseases that are not transmitted from person to person. Various types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, severe forms of diabetes, respiratory diseases and other chronic diseases take many lives. According to the World Health Organization, non-communicable diseases are the main cause of death in more than 70% of all recorded deaths in the world.
Noncommunicable diseasesarise from a combination of genetic factors with environmental factors or the lifestyle of an individual, but are not transmitted by bacteria, viruses or fungi. Be that as it may, experts note that microbes located both on the human body and inside it have a great impact on human health. So, in a recent study, scientists decided to find out whether a human microbiome can serve as a means of transmitting noncommunicable diseases from person to person.
According to an article published on the portalLivescience.com, some types of microorganisms daily help with the vital functions of the human body by controlling important physiological systems, including metabolism, digestion and immunity. Be that as it may, researchers suggest that some chronic diseases may be directly related to bacterial imbalances in the body. So, for example, in people with diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease or cardiovascular disease, as a rule, in the intestine there is a different collection of bacteria than in healthy representatives of humanity. In this regard, some experts believe that healthy people can potentially “catch” the manifestations of these diseases due to the effects of mixed microbes.
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During the study, experts collected samplessaliva and stool in 290 people living in close proximity to each other in order to determine the types of bacteria that inhabit their microbiomes. As a result of the experiment, scientists revealed specific patterns of bacterial transmission in each of the communities, especially among people living in the same house. And if the mother and her children had many similar microorganisms, then the spouses had even more.
Scientists say that along with the “healthy”microbes can be transmitted and “errors” that cause the development of chronic diseases. Thus, a couple with type 2 diabetes is more likely to get this disease within a year of being diagnosed with one of the partners. As evidence of this, studies were conducted on mice whose sterile representatives developed diabetic symptoms after they had a bacterial transplant from a diseased mouse. Similar trends were observed in experiments with inflammatory bowel diseases in both humans and animals.
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Obesity is also believed to be potentially capable of transmitting microbes. Sterile mice begin to suffer from symptoms of obesity after receiving fecal transplantation from diseased mice.
As soon as scientists can prove the possibilitythe spread of noncommunicable diseases between people, they will be able to develop new ways to treat the microbiota of already sick people. Researchers still have long work to study the effect of human bacteria on the body and its health, recommending at this time to adhere to a healthy diet and moderate exercise to prevent most known diseases.