Many of you know that in the fall of 2019Google and IBM started a real confrontation between themselves: when Google announced its “quantum superiority” due to successfully completed quantum computing, IBM unexpectedly picked up the baton, demonstrating the ability of their new supercomputer to perform calculations at almost the same speed and with much greater accuracy than google quantum computer. This was not the first time that anyone doubted quantum computing. Last year, Michel Dyakonov, a theoretical physicist at the University of Montpellier in France, proposed many theoretical reasons why quantum-supercomputers that are easy to use will never be built. So how do you know who is right and who is not?
Why could the creation of supercomputers be in jeopardy?
Quantum Computer - Extremely Usefulinvention when creating artificial intelligence of the future, new cryptography methods and even new types of rechargeable batteries. Despite the versatility of its application, the device may never work at full strength. So few encouraging conclusions were made by the French researcher Michel Dyakonov, who for many years worked on the implementation of quantum computing. The scientist believes that due to the inevitability of random errors in the hardware of the device, truly useful quantum computers are unlikely to ever be built.
In order to understand why the creationnext-generation supercomputers may be at risk, we should first understand the principles of operation of this computing device. According to an article published on theconversation.com, modern computers operate on the principle of binary code for data storage, while already created quantum devices use a system of quantum bits or qubits.
Qubits have special properties: they can exist in superposition, being both zero and one, while being entangled with each other even if they are at a considerable distance from each other. Such unusual behavior is not associated with the world of classical physics, since the superposition instantly disappears when the experimenter interacts with the quantum state.
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Thanks to superposition, a quantum computer with100 qubits can simultaneously represent 2100 solutions. For some tasks, this exponential parallelism can be used to create a huge advantage in computational speed. At the same time, there is another, narrower approach to quantum computing, in which qubits are used to accelerate optimization problems. For example, D-Wave Systems, a company based in Canada, has built optimization systems that use qubits for this purpose, although some critics claim that the resulting systems work no better than classic computers.
Despite this, companies and countries investhuge amounts of money in quantum computing. It is known that China has built a new center for quantum research worth $ 10 billion, and the European Union has developed a master plan for quantum research in the amount of 1 billion euros or 1.1 billion dollars. The new United States National Quantum Initiative Act provides for $ 1.2 billion to develop quantum informatics over a five-year period.
The ability to crack encryption algorithms ispowerful motivating factor for many countries of the world. Thus, knowledge of the enemy's encryption systems could give a huge advantage in intelligence, while at the same time contributing to the conduct of new fundamental research in the field of physics, since modern experimental systems have only less than 100 qubits. To achieve the useful computing performance of a supercomputer, we probably need machines with hundreds of thousands of qubits. In order for the devices to function correctly, they must correct all minor random errors in the software. In a quantum computer, such errors arise due to imperfect elements of the circuit and the interaction of qubits with their environment. For these reasons, qubits can lose coherence in just a split second, which can lead to erroneous computer results.
In other words, although quantum supercomputers andhave a right to exist, the correctness of their calculations may come under a big question. And what do you think, can a person once subjugate quantum technology? Share your opinion with like-minded people in our official Telegram chat.