Among any items you can find the largest inkind of. Once upon a time in childhood, a fourteen-story house seemed to me big. Later I started traveling and saw a lot of New York skyscrapers, Petronas towers and much more. But there is one building that is currently the largest in the world. Its height is almost a kilometer, and the design is unique in its complexity. When building such a "house", as when creating a sports car, one must even think about aerodynamics. Let's talk about this building, its successor, and some others that are close to it in height at least approximately.
- 1 The tallest building on Earth
- 2 Burj Khalifa Construction History
- 3 Features of Burj Khalifa
- 4 The tallest buildings in the world
- 5 The tallest buildings in Russia
- 6 Which building will be the tallest in the world
Tallest building on earth
Currently the tallest building in the worldis Burj Khalifa. At the same time, the Burj Khalifa is precisely a residential / office building and broadcasting radio or television signals is not its main task. Translated from Arabic, the name Burj Khalifa means “Tower of the Khalifa”. Until 2010, this huge building was called the Burj Dubai (Dubai Tower). But opening the tower, the ruler of the emirate of Dubai renamed it, dedicating the building to the President of the UAE, Sheikh Khalifa Ibn Zayed Al Nahyan.
This is not just a skyscraper, but an ultrahigh skyscraper 828 meters high, that's as many as 163 floors. In form, it resembles a stalagmite, which we have already talked about. This form gives it more stability.
Stalagmites - mineral formations growing in the form of pillars (cones) at the bottom of caves and other underground cavities. Stalactites grow towards them. Often they coalesce together, forming stalagnates.
Solemn the opening of the tower took place on January 4, 2010although initially it was planned for three monthsearlier. An earlier launch date was planned in order to coincide with the launch of the Dubai metro. Surprisingly, such a delay was caused by funding problems. Somehow it does not fit with how they spend money in Dubai.
Two and a half years before the completion of the construction, the tower became the highest of what man did. She was ahead of the Warsaw radio mast, which fell in 1991.
Burj Khalifa is not only a tower. It is practically a city in a city. Inside there are residential premises, offices, shops, sports centers, entertainment complexes and much more. Outside is a park with lawns and fountains. All together looks very futuristic.
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Burj Khalifa Construction History
The construction of the Burj Khalifa cost in one and a half billion dollars, and the author of the project was architect Adrian Smith. This architect designed the Jin Mao skyscraper in China with a height of 420 meters. Interestingly, the construction division of Burj Khalifa was a division of Samsung. The same unit was involved in the construction of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Burj Khalifa construction cost amounted to $ 1.5 billion
Interesting that during constructionBurj Khalifa's final tower height was kept secret. In general, there are many secrets in the world, but in this case it was done so that if someone decides to build a building higher, the project can be changed and still be higher.
The foundation of the building was laid in 2004, and the construction itself went at a speed of 1-2 floors per week. Daily 12,000 workers were engaged in construction from different countries. Total construction took more than 300,000 cubic meters of concrete and 60,000 tons of steel reinforcement.
Since 2007, the tower began to outpaceprevious record holders until it became the highest. It finally reached its height of 818 meters in early 2009, a little less than a year before the official opening.
Features of Burj Khalifa
When implementing such a non-standard projectnon-standard solutions are required. As a result, a special brand of concrete was even developed for the building. It can withstand temperatures up to +50 degrees Celsius. To make the structure stronger, the concrete mixture was laid only at night, and ice was added to the solution. Of course, the spider is far from such technologies, but he is trying.
The complexity of the foundation lies in the fact that the towerIt stands essentially on loose soil. Unlike many skyscrapers that are built on a rocky foundation, Burj Khalifa is built on soft earth. To ensure that the structure does not fall apart and does not roll, the foundation was placed on piles 45 meters long and 1.5 meters thick. There are about 200 such piles in the construction.
To prevent the building from being exposedstrong wind in the desert, it has an aerodynamic section shape. So the wind better flows around the structure. In this case, the swaying is still inevitable, but so that they are not so large, the shape of the tower is made asymmetric.
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The glazing of the Burj Khalifa consists of specialtinted thermal panels. Given that in Dubai the temperature in the daytime reaches +50 degrees Celsius, such a solution is simply necessary. So much less load on the air conditioning system is required. Moreover, the glazing area is approximately 17 times the area of a football field. It takes about 3 months to wash this area. Sandstorms make the building dirty faster. Therefore, it is washed almost constantly.
The building houses the Armani Hotel,ranging from 1st to 39th floor. Designed by Giorgio Armani personally. From the 44th to the 108th floor (but not on all floors) there are 900 apartments, and the 100th floor was completely bought out by the Indian billionaire B.R. Shetty. On this floor are three of his apartments. Offices are located from the 111th to the 154th floor, and the highest observation deck in the world (555 meters) on the 148th floor.
To move between floors in a building57 elevators and 8 escalators are installed. At the same time, only one service elevator runs along the entire height of the building. According to some, the elevator speed is 18 meters per second, but official information says about 10 meters per second.
At the entrance to the building is an artificial lake12 hectares with a musical fountain. Almost 7,000 light sources are used to illuminate it. It remains only to add that the height of the fountain jets reaches 150 meters. This is a hell of a lot!
An interesting feature of the building is the systemcollecting water. This is a kind of golden standard for the environmental friendliness of modern buildings, when rainwater is collected and spent on technical needs. In Dubai, critically little rain falls during the year, and there is no need to talk about such a system, but it does exist. True, she collects condensate. It is formed by the contact of a building, cooled from the inside, with hot air from the outside.
Over a year, more than 40 million liters of condensate are collected in the building.
Over a year, more than 40million liters of water. Given the scarcity of water in the region, this is very, very much. Water is collected from tanks in the basement of the building and used to irrigate lawns and plants in the park around the tower.
The tallest buildings in the world
Among the tallest buildings in the world there are noone that would reach at least a height close to the Burj Khalifa. In second place in height is the Shanghai Tower with a result of “only” 632 meters, which is almost 200 meters below the Dubai Tower.
When calculating the height of buildings, it is customary to takeground elevation at the main entrance to the building, and beyond the top - the real top point of the structure. The difference between these two points is the height of the building. Antennas, removable spiers, flagpoles and other unstable structures are not taken into account.
The top ten skyscrapers in the world are as follows:
As you can see, the difference between the second and tenth placesit does not even reach 50 meters, and the Burj Khalifa is detached from them by as much as 200 meters. This is impressive. For comparison, the Borje Milad in Tehran, 435 meters high, is 200 meters from the second place. This is the 41st place in the ranking ...
The tallest buildings in Russia
In Russia, there are also several buildings thatare among the highest in the world. The tallest building in our country is the Ostankino television tower with a height of 540 meters. The tower was built in 1967 and is still the tallest building in Russia and Europe. The Ostankino television tower takes 16th place in the ranking of the tallest structures in the world.
The tallest building in Russia, which does not haveattitude to broadcasting a radio or television signal, is the Lakhta Center in St. Petersburg with a height of 462 meters. This is the 26th place in the world ranking of the highest buildings in the world.
Also among the tallest buildings in the world there are several television towers and office buildings, including the buildings of the Moscow City complex. Here's what the list looks like, given the position in the world ranking:
Above are given the highest buildings in Russiaincluded in the world rating of buildings, masts and TV towers. There is also a separate rating of office / residential buildings. It includes Lakhta Center (St. Petersburg, 462 meters, 16th place in the world), Federation Tower East (Moscow, 373 meters, 54th place in the world) and South Eye Tower (Moscow, 353 meters, 69th place in the world).
Lakhta Center in St. Petersburg on 16th place inranking of the highest office residential buildings in the world. Its height is 472 meters. This is the tallest building in Russia and Europe. And also the most northern ultra-high skyscraper.
Which building will be the tallest in the world
The Burj Khalifa record has been holding for 13 years, but inmay soon be surpassed by the Jeddah Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Its construction began in 2013, and the design height should reach 1007 meters. While the construction is frozen, but of the buildings under construction, this is the only one that threatens the current record holder.
What do you think will be completed? Will we discuss it in our Telegram chat?
Many large construction projects were conceived at the end.zero, but were canceled due to the financial crisis of 2008. Among them is the Nahil Tower in Dubai, with a design height of 1,400 meters. It was supposed to be completed in 2018, but it did not work out.
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Slightly Burj Khalifa should get aheadand Sky City Tower in Changsha, China. Construction was supposed to end in 2016 at an altitude of 838 meters, but was also canceled due to the crisis. Financial crisis. And there are climatic crises.
In Russia, for the same reason, canceledthe construction of the Russia tower, which was supposed to be completed in 2016 in Moscow. The design height was 612 meters. About one and a half times higher than the Federation Tower East (373 meters).
An interesting project was the construction of the Palace of Soviets in Moscow during the Soviet era. Its height was to be 495 meters, and construction was canceled due to the Second World War.
As you can see, many large construction projects around the worldcanceled for external reasons. Most of them are due to the 2008 crisis. Some construction sites have been canceled, and some have changed a lot and the buildings have become much lower than planned. All this suggests that nothing has been impossible for engineers and architects for a long time. The question rests on money, since each subsequent meter is much more expensive than the previous one.
Burj Khalifa is lucky. The right place and time was chosen for the construction. She “slipped”, but others could not. That is why she is still a leader, but the time will come and she will be honorably gone to second place, then lower and lower, but now she can enjoy the glory, and we can enjoy her.