General, Research, Technology

How many bacteria are there in one apple?

Apples are one of the most consumed.fruits in the world. Their popularity is evidenced by the famous English proverb “an apple a day and a doctor is not needed”, analogues of which exist in other languages. In English, the saying goes like this: an apple a day keeps a doctor away, and in Spanish like this: una manzana al dia mantiene al doctor en la lejania. But are apples really that good? Recently, Swiss scientists estimate that one apple contains more than 100 million bacteria. It is possible that after reading this article your attitude to these fruits will change a little. The work was published in the journal Frontiers in microbiology.

Apples are really good for health, scientists found

Apples are an important sourcevarious trace elements, fiber and minerals in the human diet. They also have a beneficial effect on health thanks to pectins, which help fight various cardiovascular diseases. However, less is known about the apple microbiome. Recently, a group of scientists decided to calculate exactly how many bacteria are in these fruits. The fact is that raw vegetables and fruits are literally teeming with various microorganisms and beneficial intestinal microbes. However, what kind of bacteria and how many are contained in apples remained unknown.

About which fruits and vegetables are the most healthy, read on our channel in Yandex.Zen.

Which part of the apple is the most healthy?

To study the microbiome of apples, scientists chosegrade "Arles". The researchers wanted to identify the differences between all parts of the apples: the stem, peel, pulp and seeds, carefully studying them. Moreover, for the purity of the experiment, the researchers studied two types of Arle apples - organically grown apples (without the use of pesticides and fertilizers) and grown in the traditional way. The results revealed that the stem, peel, pulp and seeds are populated by various bacterial communities. Interestingly, the pulp and seeds of the fruit were bacterial “hot spots”, but the peel was less colonized.

Do you want apples? Frame from the animated series “Rick and Morty”

On average, scientists say, in one applecontains at least 114 million bacteria. Although this amount was the same, the bacterial composition was significantly different in 39 fruits obtained in a traditional and organic way. Researchers note that the number of bacteria in apples grown organically is about the same as in ordinary apples, but the composition of the bacterial communities is still different. Another advantage of organic apples was their richer taste, the reason for which lies in the presence of methyl bacteria in these fruits. Scientists also note that those who eat the whole apple, leaving only the tail, get much more beneficial bacteria than those who eat only the flesh. No less interesting is the fact that a large number of microorganisms are contained in the flowers and stems of the apple tree. Researchers note that the findings are consistent with a recent study in which the authors observed a specific fungal microbiome.

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An important task of present and future researchfurther clarification of whether foodborne bacteria can affect intestinal microbiomes. Further detailed research is needed on the microbiome of apples and other products. The authors of the work also indicate some limitations of the study, since they studied only one variety of apples.