General, Research, Technology

How does the first Russian vaccine against coronavirus Sputnik-5 work?

Russia prepares to launch a massive campaignvaccination against coronavirus in October - said the Minister of Health Mikhail Murashko. According to RIA Novosti, clinical trials of the first registered vaccine against Covid-19 from the Moscow Gamaleya Institute have been completed. Moscow assures that the results of testing "Sputnik V" showed the presence of an immune response in all subjects, without any side effects or complications. At the same time, some researchers directly involved in the development of the vaccine believe that the Russian vaccine will be safer than the English one. But is this so and how does Sputnik V generally work?

International experts question the effectiveness and safety of the Russian vaccine against coronavirus

Coronavirus vaccine

According to the World Health Organization(WHO), 26 vaccine candidates are currently in clinical trials worldwide, including one from the Gamalea Institute. Let me remind you that WHO experts have repeatedly stated that there is no "silver bullet" for the coronavirus, which has infected more than 20 million people worldwide and killed at least 737,000 according to data from Johns Hopkins University. Scientists around the world are rushing to develop a safe and effective vaccine against the virus in record time.

Generally, when it comes to makingvaccines, it is important to understand that the manufacturing process takes a long - without exaggeration - time. This is a complex and lengthy process, consisting of several stages, and until each of the stages is completed, there can be no talk of the readiness of the vaccine. At the same time, WHO notes that their specialists are in contact with the regulatory authorities of Russia to obtain all the necessary information about the Sputnik V vaccine.

At the time of this writing, more than 150 vaccines are being developed in the world according to WHO. Moreover, 26 of them have already been tested in humans.

Development, testing and analysis of anya potential vaccine is also an expensive job that usually takes months or even years. The fastest development of a mumps vaccine in history took over four years before it was licensed in 1967.

Effects on the human body

The main questions about the Russian vaccine remainthe question of its effectiveness, safety and impact on the human body. In addition, scientists warn that they still do not know the answers to questions about the short and long-term effects of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which causes Covid-19, on the human body. Let me remind you that a new coronavirus infection was discovered only seven months ago and for this reason has not been fully studied by specialists. Read about whether it is possible to be re-infected with the new coronavirus in our material.

It looks like Sputnik-5

Of course, Russia is working “phenomenallytalented scientists, so many foreign experts do not doubt the country's ability to create a safe and effective vaccine. However, international skepticism continues:

You can't just take and start giving a vaccine to the general public, says an infectious disease specialist and professor at the University of Toronto. Isaac Bogoch.

CNBC reports words by Dr. Paul Offit, directorThe Vaccination Center at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, which is concerned that the approval of a Russian vaccine could put pressure on the US, which in turn could lead to registration of the vaccine without clinical trials. At the same time, Offit is convinced that the registration of "Sputnik V" is a political trick.

What is known about Sputnik V?

Working on a vaccine against the new coronavirusScientists at the Gamaleya Moscow Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology used military-grade testing, accelerated clinical trials, and took steps to shorten the time it takes to develop and test a vaccine. According to Mash, the researchers suggest that the vaccine be given twice. Scientists claim that after the first injection in the human body, the development of an immune response will begin, and 21 days after the second injection, long-term immunity will be provided.

The laboratory behind the vaccine is nowseeks regulatory approval for Sputnik V vaccine. Doctors and teachers are planned to be vaccinated first, and mass vaccinations are scheduled for October. The developer of the Russian vaccine Denis Logunov told Meduza that the Gamaleya Institute by the end of 2020, it will be able to reach a production volume of 3-5 million doses of vaccine per year. And recently it became known that toother Russian biotechnological companies - Binnopharm, Generium and R-Pharm - also joined the production. How the vaccine will be distributed between Russian consumers and consumers from other countries is not specified.

The official website of Sputnik V states the following:

Vector technology platform basedadenoviruses simplifies and accelerates the creation of new vaccines by modifying the original carrier vector with genetic material from newly emerging viruses, which makes it possible to obtain new vaccines in a short time. Such vaccines elicit a strong response from the human immune system.

Vaccine Developers Claim Double Vaccination Is Key To Defeating Novel Coronavirus Infection

In other words, "Sputnik V" - it is a vector vaccine based on the human adenovirus. It is adenoviruses that cause everyone the common cold and SARS, and it is from them that researchers have not been able to invent a vaccine for years. And yet, it should be noted that this technology is not new in itself. The principle of adenoviral vectors effectivelyhas been in use for many years since 1953. Similar adenoviral vaccines are actively used against Ebola, as well as Chinese-made cancer drugs. Furthermore, the clinical safety of this technology has been confirmed.

See also: Russian coronavirus vaccine: everything you need to know

As stated to the Russian news agencyTASS Minister of Industry and Trade Denis Manturov, the country expects to produce several million doses of Covid-19 vaccines every month - and all this by early 2021. This acceleration in development may mean that Russia intends to become the first country in the world to carry out mass vaccination of the population against Covid-19. At the same time, the results of clinical trials of an innovative vaccine are still not published. Therefore, skepticism on the part of world-class specialists is fully justified.

It also means that you only need to vaccinatewaiting for the third stage of testing Sputnik-5. It is important to understand that the creation of a vaccine in such a short time is taking place for the first time in human history. And if suddenly our scientists succeed, then just two injections can save many lives. What do you think about the Sputnik-5 vaccine? Share your answer in the comments to this article as well as with the members of our Telegram chat.