Research, Technology

How do wormholes help solve the information paradox of black holes?

There are questions to which we will never answer.we won't know. Take, for example, black holes - these mysterious cosmic objects are found throughout the universe. Their gravity is so strong that all nearby objects will inevitably be absorbed by them. And if we are able to detect black holes and assume what is happening inside, then it is not possible to find out what exactly is beyond the event horizon. No living organism can ever be inside these space monsters. Science, however, allows certain assumptions to be made. So, Einstein's general theory of relativity (GR) says that all objects absorbed by a black hole remain in it forever. Even the quanta of the light itself are not able to break out. But in the 1970s, theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking came to the conclusion that black holes must emit radiation, thereby creating a paradox.

Many physicists believe that "wormholes" are real and can be found throughout the universe. including our galaxy.

Information paradox - loss of information as a result of the formation, emission and decay of black holes.

Do black holes evaporate?

It sounds a little strange, but black holes are actuallyactually emit weak radiation. It is this that ultimately carries the energy away from the black hole. Moreover, this faint glow completely drains the black hole, thus marking its disappearance. All that remains of it is light.

In the 1970s, scientists' calculations suggested thatlight contains almost no information. The black holes seemed to destroy not only the objects they ate, but any evidence of what those objects were. And yet there is a small problem - according to quantum mechanics, this is simply impossible.

Black holes evaporate, but how exactly is the big question

Recall that the basic principle of quantum mechanicsis to study the behavior of particles at the subatomic level. If you know the current state of any system, then you know everything there is to know about its past and future.

Somehow black holes seemed todestroyed information that, according to quantum theory, cannot be destroyed. This problem is a true informational paradox that has baffled physicists for decades.

Read even more fascinating articles about the latest scientific discoveries in the field of astrophysics and cosmology on our channel in Yandex.Zen. There are regularly published articles that are not on the site!

But over the past few years, theoretical physicistsidentified key points overlooked in Hawking's original calculations. Calculations completed in 2019 have finally given scientists an idea of ​​how this information might be preserved. In addition, learning exactly how quantum computing works can provide new insights into what quantum gravity theory is all about.

Are black holes and wormholes connected?

Researchers have recently discovered somethinginteresting: wormholes or wormholes can connect different distant regions of the universe. This may shed some light on what actually happens to the information about matter absorbed by black holes.

Wormhole (or wormhole) - a hypothetical structure that allows you to pass through space-time and find yourself in another galaxy. Interestingly, wormholes exist due to the gravitational influence of black holes.

Wormholes could be portals to other galaxies

Eventually the black hole will completely well as any information about its absorbed content. But this contradicts the fundamental adage of quantum physics: information cannot disappear from the universe.

Again, this means that the general theoryrelativity and quantum mechanics in their present form are incompatible with each other. We must find a unified framework for quantum gravity, write the authors of the new study.

Many physicists also suspect that informationslips out of black holes in a somewhat unusual way - somehow it remains encoded in the radiation. To find out if this is true or not, the researchers calculate the entropy of radiation, which measures how much information is lost outside the black hole. Recall that entropy is a measure of disorder, chaos.

More on the topic: Will humans ever be able to travel through wormholes?

In 1993, physicist Don Page calculated that if no information is lost, entropy will initially increase but then fall to zero as the black hole disappears.

It turns out when physicists simply combine the quantummechanics with the standard description of black holes in general relativity, they are probably wrong - the entropy is constantly increasing as the black hole shrinks - that is, it loses information.

You can imagine a wormhole by folding a piece of paper in half and then piercing it. This hole will be like a wormhole.

Recently, researchers have been able to study how blackholes mimic wormholes, providing an escape route for information. It must be understood that this is not a wormhole in the real world, but a way of mathematically calculating the entropy of radiation. Thus, the wormhole connects the inside of the black hole and the radiation outside, like a bridge.

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What happens to the information?

After a detailed analysis, the authorsscientific work combined the standard description and image of a wormhole. The result was consistent with early predictions, so physicists are probably right in assuming that information persists even after the death of a black hole.

"We discovered a new geometryspace-time with a wormhole-like structure that was overlooked in standard calculations,” the physicists explain. "The entropy calculated using the new geometry gives a completely different result."

The study of black holes may provide answers to the biggest questions about the origin of our universe

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Despite the increased number of questions anddesire to understand how the Universe arose and how the Universe works, gravity will have to be considered as a quantum phenomenon. This is because it is impossible to understand what happens to information without the theory of quantum gravity, which means we will wait for further discoveries.