Today, to become an astronaut, one does not need to beYuri Gagarin - the requirements for candidates are much softer than in the second half of the 20th century. According to 2017 data, a space explorer must be under 35 years of age, have an education in engineering, science or flight specialties, have at least 3 years of work experience and be completely healthy, without chronic diseases. The height of the astronaut should be 150-190 centimeters, and the body weight should be in the region of 50-90 kilograms. If a person meets all these requirements, he waits for recruitment into the Russian detachment and undergoes training for about six years. Since space flight is a serious test for the human body, candidates are constantly training. Classes are held both before the flight and after returning to Earth - in space, the human body noticeably weakens. Let's find out what kind of training we are talking about?
Since flying into space requires a strongbody and health in general, a person must initially be in good physical shape. Each cosmonaut, even before applying for a flight, already regularly performs standard training. That is, he goes to the gym, eats right and does everything necessary to have good health and fitness. But this is not enough - before the flight, astronauts must undergo training on special equipment.
- 1 Centrifuge training
- 2 Pool trials
- 3 Training on the ISS
- 4 Training after landing
Some of the toughest moments while flying inspace is takeoff and landing. At these stages, the astronauts experience the strongest load, therefore, so that it does not become an unpleasant surprise, they gain such experience during tests in a centrifuge. Candidates sit in a special chamber with a chair, fasten their seat belts and start spinning. The centrifuge makes up to 36.5 revolutions per minute at speeds up to 250 kilometers per hour. The conditions inside the simulator are as close as possible to those that are established inside the cabin of the spacecraft during takeoff and return to Earth. In the cabin, you can change the pressure, air temperature, humidity and other parameters.
All astronauts after takeoff find themselves onspace station. Sometimes, for repair work, they put on spacesuits and get out into outer space. Being on there, they also experience a strong load - even to squeeze the palm, they have to make great efforts. To get used to the harsh conditions of space, they train at the bottom of a deep pool on Earth. Artificially created conditions of weightlessness under water is called hydroweightlessness. Being at the bottom of the pool, the cosmonauts for a long time work out on mock-ups the same actions that they will have to perform in outer space. It feels like hydroweightlessness is almost the same as in space weightlessness. The only difference is that the internal organs of a person are still affected by gravity - in space they are also in weightlessness.
See also: NASA astronauts went into outer space and found water in a spacesuit
Training on the ISS
Astronauts are required to perform physicalexercises not only before and after the flight, but also during your stay on the space station. The fact is that being in conditions of weightlessness, the human body greatly relaxes. If you do not constantly train, the muscles can atrophy and a person will no longer be able to walk on Earth - it will take a huge amount of time to recover. For training on the ISS, an exercise bike, a treadmill and other tools are used.
Training after landing
After returning to Earth, each astronautundergoing restoration. The fact is that even with regular exercises in space, the human body is still weakening. Returning, some people cannot even raise their hands - the body gets used to the fact that it is enough to move your fingers to move in weightlessness. During recovery, the astronauts regularly swim, visit the sauna to train the vessels, and so on. The duration of recovery depends on how much time the astronaut spent on the station. The longer a person has been in space, the more days it takes to get used to terrestrial conditions.
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It is important to note that approximately the same trainingspace tourists pass by. In 2021, a fairly large number of tourist flights were made, and all participants in these missions underwent a training program, albeit a noticeably reduced one. However, already in 2022, space tourists will go into outer space for the first time and test new spacesuits. Read more about the upcoming mission in this article.