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How computers help study black holes


Science does not stand still.At Louisiana State University in the US, physicists have created a simulation of a black hole connected to a white hole. To do this, they used a non-linear optical material that can reproduce the effect of the event horizon and Hawking radiation.

So, they were able to prove that there is quantum entanglement between the radiation and the interior of a black hole.

Over time, any black hole will graduallyevaporates due to numerous quantum effects. At the same time, it emits Hawking radiation and also loses mass. The particles themselves, which go farther and farther from the event horizon, are quantum entangled with the bowels of the black hole.
It is, of course, impossible to test this in practice. At least because Hawking radiation is weak, and therefore is lost among other bright sources of radiation.

In general, to put it briefly and clearly, thenscientists have shown that by illuminating analog event horizons with photons, it is possible to increase entanglement in Hawking radiation. That is, roughly speaking, the particles that fly out of the black hole were really in it. And all this thanks to computer modeling. It turns out that even a black hole sometimes becomes white.

And this is not the first time that thanks totechnology is able to explore black holes. So, three years ago, scientists from Princeton University were able to create a unique microchip that mimics the structure of space-time inside a black hole or a miniature two-dimensional universe.

“Ordinary computers, in principle, cannotcalculate the behavior of complex quantum materials and systems. We have tried to create a device that will force nature to do these calculations for us. This chip will allow us to think about how we can “embed” quantum mechanics in curved spaces,” says Alicia Kollar from Princeton University (USA).

Thus, scientists were able to create a chip, inwho inserted many pieces of superconductors. They, in turn, played the role of waveguides along which particles of light generated by microwave sources could move. Then all this interacted with each other. Other interactions will slow down the movement of other particles, or affect them.

The chips are already helping to unlock the secrets of black holes, including how they evaporate under the influence of Hawking radiation.