For more than a hundred years diverse processes and phenomena in the natural sciences have been modelled using random particle systems. Starting in the 19th century scientist have become used to the idea of regarding things like fluids, gases, light and solid materials as enormous collections of interacting particles. As a result ever more models that specify a large number of particles and rules for how they interact have been both proposed and mathematically analysed. In such cases one often make a stochastic assumption, that is the the locations or motions of the particles are somehow stochastic, additional model components may also be specified stochastically, for example the environment and the interactions. We distinguish between dynamic models where the time evolution of a particle system is described and static systems where the particles do not move.
The task is then to describe the macroscopic behaviour of the complete system, to explain it mathematically and where possible to relate it to experimental data. In many cases this task becomes ones of finding or adapting methods to describe important order parameters and for proving how the qualitative aspects of the system behaviour depends on these parameters. A typical example of an order parameter is the empirical average measure of the particles, which, under an appropriate rescaling, allows an approximate description of the overall system by a single equation, in most cases a differential equation. This procedure is often carried out in the thermodynamic limit
where many particles are considered in an expanding large box, but where the concentration of particles is also increased so as to keep the concentration constant. A second important setting is the hydrodynamic limit
where the box stays constant, but the number of particles increases while their effective size decreases. Residence probabilities for the particles after averaging can also satisfy interesting equations. Some of these equations where studied long before they were derived from particle models!
Particle models have become especially widespread in physics and chemistry as a good compromise between reality and tractability. For example, static, atomic many body systems are often described through an energy function, which assigns every possible configuration an energy based on the interaction between the particles and then interprets the negative exponential of the energy as proportional to the configuration probability. Such distributions are called Gibbs measures; they preferentially select configurations with low energies. An example is a salt crystal, which consists of charged particles (ions) seeking to minimise their combined electrostatic potential energy. Other systems, especially at positive temperatures contain random walks or Brownian motions, which react (e.g. coagulate) with each other when in close proximity (see the applied theme Coagulation). In this way we model, for example, the formation of soot particles in flames. A related class of stochastic particle models are families of interacting stochastic (partial) differential equations, which have recently been used in the modelling of battery charging (see the applied theme Thermodynamic models for electrochemical systems).
Contribution of the Institute
Atomic, static models for interacting many body systems are described with LennardJones potentials, which cause the particles to maintain a certain amount of separation and not to collapse onto a single point. Another example is the Bosegas in which every particle has a kinetic energy in addition to its position. The work of the WIAS on the first model deals with the formation of clusters and crystallisation, and for the Bosegas with condensation phenomena; see the mathematical theme Large Deviations
A realisation of a many body system showing a small crystal in the lower right corner.
Models with many random particles are also used for the description of large wireless telecommunications systems; in this case the particles
are the userdevices . When the movement of the users does not have to be considered, the modelling of the device locations is typically via a Poisson point process, but when the motion of users becomes important it is not yet clear how to model user paths especially as user behaviour undergoes periodic qualitative changes (e.g. between day and night). The particle
interactions depend on their separation since a message can only be effectively transmitted when two devices are within range of each other; see the applied theme Mobile Communication Networks. In this connection we have used methods from the theory of large deviations to analyse the positions of the devices. By performing a constrained energy minimisation we are able to characterise the most important particle distributions for which no effective network can be established.
For dynamic models a wide range of hydrodynamic limit results have been proved dealing with elastically colliding gas molecules, soot formation and chemical reactions and leading to kinetic equations (see the Mathematical theme Nonlinear kinetic equations). For a combined generalisation of soot formation and chemical reactions, a dynamic large deviations principle was derived. With additional analytic tools an entropylike free energy and its dissipation potentials were identified. Together they form a gradient structure and provide a more detailed description of the dynamics and the effect of perturbations.
In Biology the definition of useful stochastic models is an active topic of research that is far from complete. Established models for populations and their movements include spatial branching processes with random motions, which the WIAS studies in random environments; see the mathematical theme Spectral theory of random operators. Further biological models can be found in the Applied Theme Stochastic biological evolution.
Publications
Monographs

B. Jahnel, W. König, Probabilistic Methods in Telecommunications, D. Mazlum, ed., Compact Textbooks in Mathematics, Birkhäuser Basel, 2020, XI, 200 pages, (Monograph Published), DOI 10.1007/9783030360900 .
Abstract
This textbook series presents concise introductions to current topics in mathematics and mainly addresses advanced undergraduates and master students. The concept is to offer small books covering subject matter equivalent to 2 or 3hour lectures or seminars which are also suitable for selfstudy. The books provide students and teachers with new perspectives and novel approaches. They may feature examples and exercises to illustrate key concepts and applications of the theoretical contents. The series also includes textbooks specifically speaking to the needs of students from other disciplines such as physics, computer science, engineering, life sciences, finance. 
W. König, Große Abweichungen, Techniken und Anwendungen, M. Brokate, A. Heinze , K.H. Hoffmann , M. Kang , G. Götz , M. Kerz , S. Otmar, eds., Mathematik Kompakt, Birkhäuser Basel, 2020, VIII, 167 pages, (Monograph Published), DOI 10.1007/9783030527785 .
Abstract
Die Lehrbuchreihe Mathematik Kompakt ist eine Reaktion auf die Umstellung der Diplomstudiengänge in Mathematik zu Bachelor und Masterabschlüssen. Inhaltlich werden unter Berücksichtigung der neuen Studienstrukturen die aktuellen Entwicklungen des Faches aufgegriffen und kompakt dargestellt. Die modular aufgebaute Reihe richtet sich an Dozenten und ihre Studierenden in Bachelor und Masterstudiengängen und alle, die einen kompakten Einstieg in aktuelle Themenfelder der Mathematik suchen. Zahlreiche Beispiele und Übungsaufgaben stehen zur Verfügung, um die Anwendung der Inhalte zu veranschaulichen. Kompakt: relevantes Wissen auf 150 Seiten Lernen leicht gemacht: Beispiele und Übungsaufgaben veranschaulichen die Anwendung der Inhalte Praktisch für Dozenten: jeder Band dient als Vorlage für eine 2stündige Lehrveranstaltung 
P. Exner, W. König, H. Neidhardt, eds., Mathematical Results in Quantum Mechanics. Proceedings of the QMath12 Conference, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2015, xii+383 pages, (Collection Published).
Articles in Refereed Journals

A. Stephan, EDPconvergence for a linear reactiondiffusion system with fast reversible reaction, Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations, 60 (2021), pp. 226/1226/35, DOI 10.1007/s00526021020890 .
Abstract
We perform a fastreaction limit for a linear reactiondiffusion system consisting of two diffusion equations coupled by a linear reaction. We understand the linear reactiondiffusion system as a gradient flow of the free energy in the space of probability measures equipped with a geometric structure, which contains the Wasserstein metric for the diffusion part and coshtype functions for the reaction part. The fastreaction limit is done on the level of the gradient structure by proving EDPconvergence with tilting. The limit gradient system induces a diffusion system with Lagrange multipliers on the linear slowmanifold. Moreover, the limit gradient system can be equivalently described by a coarsegrained gradient system, which induces a diffusion equation with a mixed diffusion constant for the coarsegrained slow variable. 
S. Jansen, W. König, B. Schmidt, F. Theil, Distribution of cracks in a chain of atoms at low temperature, Annales Henri Poincare. A Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, published online on 24.06.2021, DOI 10.1007/s00023021010767 .
Abstract
We consider a onedimensional classical manybody system with interaction potential of LennardJones type in the thermodynamic limit at low temperature 1/β ∈ (0, ∞). The ground state is a periodic lattice. We show that when the density is strictly smaller than the density of the ground state lattice, the system with N particles fills space by alternating approximately crystalline domains (clusters) with empty domains (voids) due to cracked bonds. The number of domains is of the order of N exp(β e _{surf} /2) with e _{surf} > 0 a surface energy. 
L. Andreis, W. König, R.I.A. Patterson, A largedeviations principle for all the cluster sizes of a sparse ErdősRényi random graph, Random Structures and Algorithms, (2021), published online on 05.04.2021, DOI 10.1002/rsa.21007 .
Abstract
A largedeviations principle (LDP) is derived for the state, at fixed time, of the multiplicative coalescent in the large particle number limit. The rate function is explicit and describes each of the three parts of the state: microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic. In particular, it clearly captures the well known gelation phase transition given by the formation of a particle containing a positive fraction of the system mass at time t=1. Via a standard map of the multiplicative coalescent onto a timedependent version of the ErdősRényi random graph, our results can also be rephrased as an LDP for the component sizes in that graph. Our proofs rely on estimates and asymptotics for the probability that smaller ErdősRényi graphs are connected. 
A. Mielke, M.A. Peletier, A. Stephan, EDPconvergence for nonlinear fastslow reaction systems with detailed balance, Nonlinearity, 34 (2021), pp. 57625798, DOI 10.1088/13616544/ac0a8a .
Abstract
We consider nonlinear reaction systems satisfying massaction kinetics with slow and fast reactions. It is known that the fastreactionrate limit can be described by an ODE with Lagrange multipliers and a set of nonlinear constraints that ask the fast reactions to be in equilibrium. Our aim is to study the limiting gradient structure which is available if the reaction system satisfies the detailedbalance condition. The gradient structure on the set of concentration vectors is given in terms of the relative Boltzmann entropy and a coshtype dissipation potential. We show that a limiting or effective gradient structure can be rigorously derived via EDP convergence, i.e. convergence in the sense of the EnergyDissipation Principle for gradient flows. In general, the effective entropy will no longer be of Boltzmann type and the reactions will no longer satisfy massaction kinetics. 
A. Hinsen, B. Jahnel, E. Cali, J.P. Wary, Phase transitions for chaseescape models on PoissonGilbert graphs, Electronic Communications in Probability, 25 (2020), pp. 25/125/14, DOI 10.1214/20ECP306 .
Abstract
We present results on phase transitions of local and global survival in a twospecies model on Gilbert graphs. At initial time there is an infection at the origin that propagates on the Gilbert graph according to a continuoustime nearestneighbor interacting particle system. The Gilbert graph consists of susceptible nodes and nodes of a second type, which we call white knights. The infection can spread on susceptible nodes without restriction. If the infection reaches a white knight, this white knight starts to spread on the set of infected nodes according to the same mechanism, with a potentially different rate, giving rise to a competition of chase and escape. We show welldefinedness of the model, isolate regimes of global survival and extinction of the infection and present estimates on local survival. The proofs rest on comparisons to the process on trees, percolation arguments and finitedegree approximations of the underlying random graphs. 
S. Jansen, W. König, B. Schmidt, F. Theil, Surface energy and boundary layers for a chain of atoms at low temperature, Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, 239 (2021), pp. 915980 (published online on 21.12.2020), DOI 10.1007/s00205020015873 .
Abstract
We analyze the surface energy and boundary layers for a chain of atoms at low temperature for an interaction potential of LennardJones type. The pressure (stress) is assumed small but positive and bounded away from zero, while the temperature goes to zero. Our main results are: (1) As the temperature goes to zero and at fixed positive pressure, the Gibbs measures for infinite chains and semiinfinite chains satisfy path large deviations principles. The rate functions are bulk and surface energy functionals. The minimizer of the surface functional corresponds to zero temperature boundary layers. (2) The surface correction to the Gibbs free energy converges to the zero temperature surface energy, characterized with the help of the minimum of the surface energy functional. (3) The bulk Gibbs measure and Gibbs free energy can be approximated by their Gaussian counterparts. (4) Bounds on the decay of correlations are provided, some of them uniform in the inverse temperature. 
CH. Hirsch, B. Jahnel, A. Tóbiás, Lower large deviations for geometric functionals, Electronic Communications in Probability, 25 (2020), pp. 41/141/12, DOI 10.1214/20ECP322 .
Abstract
This work develops a methodology for analyzing largedeviation lower tails associated with geometric functionals computed on a homogeneous Poisson point process. The technique applies to characteristics expressed in terms of stabilizing score functions exhibiting suitable monotonicity properties. We apply our results to clique counts in the random geometric graph, intrinsic volumes of PoissonVoronoi cells, as well as powerweighted edge lengths in the random geometric, κnearest neighbor and relative neighborhood graph. 
J. Maas, A. Mielke, Modeling of chemical reaction systems with detailed balance using gradient structures, Journal of Statistical Physics, 181 (2020), pp. 22572303, DOI 10.1007/s10955020026634 .
Abstract
We consider various modeling levels for spatially homogeneous chemical reaction systems, namely the chemical master equation, the chemical Langevin dynamics, and the reactionrate equation. Throughout we restrict our study to the case where the microscopic system satisfies the detailedbalance condition. The latter allows us to enrich the systems with a gradient structure, i.e. the evolution is given by a gradientflow equation. We present the arising links between the associated gradient structures that are driven by the relative entropy of the detailedbalance steady state. The limit of large volumes is studied in the sense of evolutionary Γconvergence of gradient flows. Moreover, we use the gradient structures to derive hybrid models for coupling different modeling levels. 
A. Tóbiás, B. Jahnel, Exponential moments for planar tessellations, Journal of Statistical Physics, 179 (2020), pp. 90109, DOI 10.1007/s10955020025213 .
Abstract
In this paper we show existence of all exponential moments for the total edge length in a unit disc for a family of planar tessellations based on Poisson point processes. Apart from classical such tessellations like the PoissonVoronoi, PoissonDelaunay and Poisson line tessellation, we also treat the JohnsonMehl tessellation, Manhattan grids, nested versions and Palm versions. As part of our proofs, for some planar tessellations, we also derive existence of exponential moments for the number of cells and the number of edges intersecting the unit disk. 
A. Mielke, A. Stephan, Coarsegraining via EDPconvergence for linear fastslow reaction systems, Mathematical Models & Methods in Applied Sciences, 30 (2020), pp. 17651807, DOI 10.1142/S0218202520500360 .
Abstract
We consider linear reaction systems with slow and fast reactions, which can be interpreted as master equations or Kolmogorov forward equations for Markov processes on a finite state space. We investigate their limit behavior if the fast reaction rates tend to infinity, which leads to a coarsegrained model where the fast reactions create microscopically equilibrated clusters, while the exchange mass between the clusters occurs on the slow time scale. Assuming detailed balance the reaction system can be written as a gradient flow with respect to the relative entropy. Focusing on the physically relevant coshtype gradient structure we show how an effective limit gradient structure can be rigorously derived and that the coarsegrained equation again has a coshtype gradient structure. We obtain the strongest version of convergence in the sense of the EnergyDissipation Principle (EDP), namely EDPconvergence with tilting. 
A. Stephan, H. Stephan, Memory equations as reduced Markov processes, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems, 39 (2019), pp. 21332155, DOI 10.3934/dcds.2019089 .
Abstract
A large class of linear memory differential equations in one dimension, where the evolution depends on the whole history, can be equivalently described as a projection of a Markov process living in a higher dimensional space. Starting with such a memory equation, we give an explicit construction of the corresponding Markov process. From a physical point of view the Markov process can be understood as the change of the type of some quasiparticles along oneway loops. Typically, the arising Markov process does not have the detailed balance property. The method leads to a more realisitc modeling of memory equations. Moreover, it carries over the large number of investigation tools for Markov processes to memory equations, like the calculation of the equilibrium state, the asymptotic behavior and so on. The method can be used for an approximative solution of some degenerate memory equations like delay differential equations. 
CH. Hirsch, B. Jahnel, Large deviations for the capacity in dynamic spatial relay networks, Markov Processes and Related Fields, 25 (2019), pp. 3373.
Abstract
We derive a large deviation principle for the spacetime evolution of users in a relay network that are unable to connect due to capacity constraints. The users are distributed according to a Poisson point process with increasing intensity in a bounded domain, whereas the relays are positioned deterministically with given limiting density. The preceding work on capacity for relay networks by the authors describes the highly simplified setting where users can only enter but not leave the system. In the present manuscript we study the more realistic situation where users leave the system after a random transmission time. For this we extend the point process techniques developed in the preceding work thereby showing that they are not limited to settings with strong monotonicity properties. 
C. Cotar, B. Jahnel, Ch. Külske, Extremal decomposition for random Gibbs measures: From general metastates to metastates on extremal random Gibbs measures, Electronic Communications in Probability, 23 (2018), pp. 112, DOI 10.1214/18ECP200 .
Abstract
The concept of metastate measures on the states of a random spin system was introduced to be able to treat the largevolume asymptotics for complex quenched random systems, like spin glasses, which may exhibit chaotic volume dependence in the strongcoupling regime. We consider the general issue of the extremal decomposition for Gibbsian specifications which depend measurably on a parameter that may describe a whole random environment in the infinite volume. Given a random Gibbs measure, as a measurable map from the environment space, we prove measurability of its decomposition measure on pure states at fixed environment, with respect to the environment. As a general corollary we obtain that, for any metastate, there is an associated decomposition metastate, which is supported on the extremes for almost all environments, and which has the same barycenter. 
G. Botirov, B. Jahnel, Phase transitions for a model with uncountable spin space on the Cayley tree: The general case, Positivity. An International Mathematics Journal Devoted to Theory and Applications of Positivity, 23 (2019), pp. 291301 (published online on 17.08.2018), DOI 10.1007/s1111701806061 .
Abstract
In this paper we complete the analysis of a statistical mechanics model on Cayley trees of any degree, started in [EsHaRo12, EsRo10, BoEsRo13, JaKuBo14, Bo17]. The potential is of nearestneighbor type and the local state space is compact but uncountable. Based on the system parameters we prove existence of a critical value θ_{ c } such that for θ≤θ _{ c } there is a unique translationinvariant splitting Gibbs measure. For θ _{ c } < θ there is a phase transition with exactly three translationinvariant splitting Gibbs measures. The proof rests on an analysis of fixed points of an associated nonlinear Hammerstein integral operator for the boundary laws. 
W. Wagner, A random walk model for the Schrödinger equation, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 143 (2018), pp. 138148, DOI 10.1016/j.matcom.2016.07.012 .
Abstract
A random walk model for the spatially discretized timedependent Schrödinger equation is constructed. The model consists of a class of piecewise deterministic Markov processes. The states of the processes are characterized by a position and a complexvalued weight. Jumps occur both on the spatial grid and in the space of weights. Between the jumps, the weights change according to deterministic rules. The main result is that certain functionals of the processes satisfy the Schrödinger equation. 
A. Mielke, R.I.A. Patterson, M.A. Peletier, D.R.M. Renger, Nonequilibrium thermodynamical principles for chemical reactions with massaction kinetics, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 77 (2017), pp. 15621585, DOI 10.1137/16M1102240 .
Abstract
We study stochastic interacting particle systems that model chemical reaction networks on the micro scale, converging to the macroscopic Reaction Rate Equation. One abstraction level higher, we study the ensemble of such particle systems, converging to the corresponding Liouville transport equation. For both systems, we calculate the corresponding large deviations and show that under the condition of detailed balance, the large deviations induce a nonlinear relation between thermodynamic fluxes and free energy driving force. 
R.I.A. Patterson, S. Simonella, W. Wagner, A kinetic equation for the distribution of interaction clusters in rarefied gases, Journal of Statistical Physics, 169 (2017), pp. 126167.

M. Erbar, M. Fathi, V. Laschos, A. Schlichting, Gradient flow structure for McKeanVlasov equations on discrete spaces, Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems, 36 (2016), pp. 67996833.
Abstract
In this work, we show that a family of nonlinear meanfield equations on discrete spaces, can be viewed as a gradient flow of a natural free energy functional with respect to a certain metric structure we make explicit. We also prove that this gradient flow structure arises as the limit of the gradient flow structures of a natural sequence of Nparticle dynamics, as N goes to infinity 
S. Jansen, W. König, B. Metzger, Large deviations for cluster size distributions in a continuous classical manybody system, The Annals of Applied Probability, 25 (2015), pp. 930973.
Abstract
An interesting problem in statistical physics is the condensation of classical particles in droplets or clusters when the pairinteraction is given by a stable LennardJonestype potential. We study two aspects of this problem. We start by deriving a large deviations principle for the cluster size distribution for any inverse temperature $betain(0,infty)$ and particle density $rhoin(0,rho_rmcp)$ in the thermodynamic limit. Here $rho_rmcp >0$ is the close packing density. While in general the rate function is an abstract object, our second main result is the $Gamma$convergence of the rate function towards an explicit limiting rate function in the lowtemperature dilute limit $betatoinfty$, $rho downarrow 0$ such that $beta^1logrhoto nu$ for some $nuin(0,infty)$. The limiting rate function and its minimisers appeared in recent work, where the temperature and the particle density were coupled with the particle number. In the decoupled limit considered here, we prove that just one cluster size is dominant, depending on the parameter $nu$. Under additional assumptions on the potential, the $Gamma$convergence along curves can be strengthened to uniform bounds, valid in a lowtemperature, lowdensity rectangle. 
M. Erbar, J. Maas, D.R.M. Renger, From large deviations to Wasserstein gradient flows in multiple dimensions, Electronic Communications in Probability, 20 (2015), pp. 112.
Abstract
We study the large deviation rate functional for the empirical distribution of independent Brownian particles with drift. In one dimension, it has been shown by Adams, Dirr, Peletier and Zimmer [ADPZ11] that this functional is asymptotically equivalent (in the sense of Gammaconvergence) to the JordanKinderlehrerOtto functional arising in the Wasserstein gradient flow structure of the FokkerPlanck equation. In higher dimensions, part of this statement (the lower bound) has been recently proved by Duong, Laschos and Renger, but the upper bound remained open, since the proof in [DLR13] relies on regularity properties of optimal transport maps that are restricted to one dimension. In this note we present a new proof of the upper bound, thereby generalising the result of [ADPZ11] to arbitrary dimensions. 
M. Muminov, H. Neidhardt, T. Rasulov, On the spectrum of the lattice spinboson Hamiltonian for any coupling: 1D case, Journal of Mathematical Physics, 56 (2015), pp. 053507/1053507/24.
Abstract
A lattice model of radiative decay (socalled spinboson model) of a two level atom and at most two photons is considered. The location of the essential spectrum is described. For any coupling constant the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues below the bottom of its essential spectrum is proved. The results are obtained by considering a more general model H for which the lower bound of its essential spectrum is estimated. Conditions which guarantee the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues of H below the bottom of its essential spectrum are found. It is shown that the discrete spectrum might be infinite if the parameter functions are chosen in a special form. 
S. Simonella, M. Pulvirenti, On the evolution of the empirical measure for hardsphere dynamics, Bulletin of the Institute of Mathematics. Academia Sinica. Institute of Mathematics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. English. English summary., 10 (2015), pp. 171204.

A. Mielke, M.A. Peletier, D.R.M. Renger, On the relation between gradient flows and the largedeviation principle, with applications to Markov chains and diffusion, Potential Analysis, 41 (2014), pp. 12931325.
Abstract
Motivated by the occurence in rate functions of timedependent largedeviation principles, we study a class of nonnegative functions ℒ that induce a flow, given by ℒ(z_{t},ż_{t})=0. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the unique existence of a generalized gradient structure for the induced flow, as well as explicit formulas for the corresponding driving entropy and dissipation functional. In particular, we show how these conditions can be given a probabilistic interpretation when ℒ is associated to the large deviations of a microscopic particle system. Finally, we illustrate the theory for independent Brownian particles with drift, which leads to the entropyWasserstein gradient structure, and for independent Markovian particles on a finite state space, which leads to a previously unknown gradient structure. 
M.H. Duong, V. Laschos, M. Renger, Wasserstein gradient flows from large deviations of manyparticle limits, ESAIM. Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations, 19 (2013), pp. 11661188.

M.A. Peletier, M. Renger, M. Veneroni, Variational formulation of the FokkerPlanck equation with decay: A particle approach, Communications in Contemporary Mathematics, 15 (2013), pp. 1350017/11350017/43.

S. Adams, A. Collevecchio, W. König, A variational formula for the free energy of an interacting manyparticle system, The Annals of Probability, 39 (2011), pp. 683728.
Abstract
We consider $N$ bosons in a box in $R^d$ with volume $N/rho$ under the influence of a mutually repellent pair potential. The particle density $rhoin(0,infty)$ is kept fixed. Our main result is the identification of the limiting free energy, $f(beta,rho)$, at positive temperature $1/beta$, in terms of an explicit variational formula, for any fixed $rho$ if $beta$ is sufficiently small, and for any fixed $beta$ if $rho$ is sufficiently small. The thermodynamic equilibrium is described by the symmetrised trace of $rm e^beta Hcal_N$, where $Hcal_N$ denotes the corresponding Hamilton operator. The wellknown FeynmanKac formula reformulates this trace in terms of $N$ interacting Brownian bridges. Due to the symmetrisation, the bridges are organised in an ensemble of cycles of various lengths. The novelty of our approach is a description in terms of a marked Poisson point process whose marks are the cycles. This allows for an asymptotic analysis of the system via a largedeviations analysis of the stationary empirical field. The resulting variational formula ranges over random shiftinvariant marked point fields and optimizes the sum of the interaction and the relative entropy with respect to the reference process. In our proof of the lower bound for the free energy, we drop all interaction involving lq infinitely longrq cycles, and their possible presence is signalled by a loss of mass of the lq finitely longrq cycles in the variational formula. In the proof of the upper bound, we only keep the mass on the lq finitely longrq cycles. We expect that the precise relationship between these two bounds lies at the heart of BoseEinstein condensation and intend to analyse it further in future. 
M. Aizenman, S. Jansen, P. Jung, Symmetry breaking in quasi1D Coulomb systems, Annales Henri Poincare. A Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, 11 (2010), pp. 14531485.
Abstract
Quasi onedimensional systems are systems of particles in domains which are of infinite extent in one direction and of uniformly bounded size in all other directions, e.g. on a cylinder of infinite length. The main result proven here is that for such particle systems with Coulomb interactions and neutralizing background, the socalled “jellium”, at any temperature and at any finitestrip width there is translation symmetry breaking. This extends the previous result on Laughlin states in thin, twodimens The structural argument which is used here bypasses the question of whether the translation symmetry breaking is manifest already at the level of the one particle density function. It is akin to that employed by Aizenman and Martin (1980) for a similar statement concerning symmetry breaking at all temperatures in strictly onedimensional Coulomb systems. The extension is enabled through bounds which establish tightness of finitevolume charge fluctuations. 
A. Collevecchio, W. König, P. Mörters, N. Sidorova, Phase transitions for dilute particle systems with LennardJones potential, Communications in Mathematical Physics, 299 (2010), pp. 603630.
Contributions to Collected Editions

A. Hinsen, B. Jahnel, E. Cali, J.P. Wary, Malware propagation in urban D2D networks, in: IEEE 18th International Symposium on on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks, (WiOpt), Volos, Greece, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020, pp. 19.
Abstract
We introduce and analyze models for the propagation of malware in pure D2D networks given via stationary CoxGilbert graphs. Here, the devices form a Poisson point process with random intensity measure λ, Λ where Λ is stationary and given, for example, by the edgelength measure of a realization of a PoissonVoronoi tessellation that represents an urban street system. We assume that, at initial time, a typical device at the center of the network carries a malware and starts to infect neighboring devices after random waiting times. Here we focus on Markovian models, where the waiting times are exponential random variables, and nonMarkovian models, where the waiting times feature strictly positive minimal and finite maximal waiting times. We present numerical results for the speed of propagation depending on the system parameters. In a second step, we introduce and analyze a counter measure for the malware propagation given by special devices called white knights, which have the ability, once attacked, to eliminate the malware from infected devices and turn them into white knights. Based on simulations, we isolate parameter regimes in which the malware survives or is eliminated, both in the Markovian and nonMarkovian setting. 
B. Jahnel, W. König, Probabilistic methods for spatial multihop communication systems, in: Topics in Applied Analysis and Optimisation, M. Hintermüller, J.F. Rodrigues, eds., CIM Series in Mathematical Sciences, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, 2019, pp. 239268.

M. Kantner, U. Bandelow, Th. Koprucki, H.J. Wünsche, Multiscale modelling and simulation of singlephoton sources on a device level, in: EuroTMCS II  Theory, Modelling & Computational Methods for Semiconductors, 7th  9th December 2016, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Ireland, E. O'Reilly, S. Schulz, S. Tomic, eds., Tyndall National Institute, 2016, pp. 65.
Preprints, Reports, Technical Reports

R.I.A. Patterson, D.R.M. Renger, U. Sharma, Variational structures beyond gradient flows: A macroscopic fluctuationtheory perspective, Preprint no. 2826, WIAS, Berlin, 2021, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2826 .
Abstract, PDF (522 kByte)
Macroscopic equations arising out of stochastic particle systems in detailed balance (called dissipative systems or gradient flows) have a natural variational structure, which can be derived from the largedeviation rate functional for the density of the particle system. While large deviations can be studied in considerable generality, these variational structures are often restricted to systems in detailed balance. Using insights from macroscopic fluctuation theory, in this work we aim to generalise this variational connection beyond dissipative systems by augmenting densities with fluxes, which encode nondissipative effects. Our main contribution is an abstract framework, which for a given fluxdensity cost and a quasipotential, provides a decomposition into dissipative and nondissipative components and a generalised orthogonality relation between them. We then apply this abstract theory to various stochastic particle systems  independent copies of jump processes, zerorange processes, chemicalreaction networks in complex balance and latticegas models. 
W. König, Branching random walks in random environment: A survey, Preprint no. 2779, WIAS, Berlin, 2020, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2779 .
Abstract, PDF (253 kByte)
We consider branching particle processes on discrete structures like the hypercube in a random fitness landscape (i.e., random branching/killing rates). The main question is about the location where the main part of the population sits at a late time, if the state space is large. For answering this, we take the expectation with respect to the migration (mutation) and the branching/killing (selection) mechanisms, for fixed rates. This is intimately connected with the parabolic Anderson model, the heat equation with random potential, a model that is of interest in mathematical physics because of the observed prominent effect of intermittency (local concentration of the mass of the solution in small islands). We present several advances in the investigation of this effect, also related to questions inspired from biology. 
J.D. Deuschel, T. Orenshtein, G.R. Moreno Flores, Aging for the stationary KardarParisiZhang equation and related models, Preprint no. 2763, WIAS, Berlin, 2020, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2763 .
Abstract, PDF (368 kByte)
We study the aging property for stationary models in the KPZ universality class. In particular, we show aging for the stationary KPZ fixed point, the ColeHopf solution to the stationary KPZ equation, the height function of the stationary TASEP, lastpassage percolation with boundary conditions and stationary directed polymers in the intermediate disorder regime. All of these models are shown to display a universal aging behavior characterized by the rate of decay of their correlations. As a comparison, we show aging for models in the EdwardsWilkinson universality class where a different decay exponent is obtained. A key ingredient to our proofs is a characteristic of spacetime stationarity  covariancetovariance reduction  which allows to deduce the asymptotic behavior of the correlations of two spacetime points by the one of the variances at one point. We formulate several open problems. 
B. Jahnel, A. Tóbiás, E. Cali, Phase transitions for the Boolean model of continuum percolation for Cox point processes, Preprint no. 2704, WIAS, Berlin, 2020, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2704 .
Abstract, PDF (389 kByte)
We consider the Boolean model with random radii based on Cox point processes. Under a condition of stabilization for the random environment, we establish existence and nonexistence of subcritical regimes for the size of the cluster at the origin in terms of volume, diameter and number of points. Further, we prove uniqueness of the infinite cluster for sufficiently connected environments. 
J.D. Deuschel, T. Orenshtein, N. Perkowski, Additive functionals as rough paths, Preprint no. 2685, WIAS, Berlin, 2020, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2685 .
Abstract, PDF (335 kByte)
We consider additive functionals of stationary Markov processes and show that under KipnisVaradhan type conditions they converge in rough path topology to a Stratonovich Brownian motion, with a correction to the Lévy area that can be described in terms of the asymmetry (nonreversibility) of the underlying Markov process. We apply this abstract result to three model problems: First we study random walks with random conductances under the annealed law. If we consider the Itô rough path, then we see a correction to the iterated integrals even though the underlying Markov process is reversible. If we consider the Stratonovich rough path, then there is no correction. The second example is a nonreversible OrnsteinUhlenbeck process, while the last example is a diffusion in a periodic environment. As a technical step we prove an estimate for the pvariation of stochastic integrals with respect to martingales that can be viewed as an extension of the rough path BurkholderDavisGundy inequality for local martingale rough paths of [FV08], [CF19] and [FZ18] to the case where only the integrator is a local martingale. 
A. Hinsen, B. Jahnel, E. Cali, J.P. Wary, Malware propagation in urban D2D networks, Preprint no. 2674, WIAS, Berlin, 2020, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2674 .
Abstract, PDF (3133 kByte)
We introduce and analyze models for the propagation of malware in pure D2D networks given via stationary CoxGilbert graphs. Here, the devices form a Poisson point process with random intensity measure λ, Λ where Λ is stationary and given, for example, by the edgelength measure of a realization of a PoissonVoronoi tessellation that represents an urban street system. We assume that, at initial time, a typical device at the center of the network carries a malware and starts to infect neighboring devices after random waiting times. Here we focus on Markovian models, where the waiting times are exponential random variables, and nonMarkovian models, where the waiting times feature strictly positive minimal and finite maximal waiting times. We present numerical results for the speed of propagation depending on the system parameters. In a second step, we introduce and analyze a counter measure for the malware propagation given by special devices called white knights, which have the ability, once attacked, to eliminate the malware from infected devices and turn them into white knights. Based on simulations, we isolate parameter regimes in which the malware survives or is eliminated, both in the Markovian and nonMarkovian setting. 
B. Jahnel, A. Tóbiás, SINR percolation for Cox point processes with random powers, Preprint no. 2659, WIAS, Berlin, 2019, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2659 .
Abstract, PDF (356 kByte)
Signaltointerference plus noise ratio (SINR) percolation is an infiniterange dependent variant of continuum percolation modeling connections in a telecommunication network. Unlike in earlier works, in the present paper the transmitted signal powers of the devices of the network are assumed random, i.i.d. and possibly unbounded. Additionally, we assume that the devices form a stationary Cox point process, i.e., a Poisson point process with stationary random intensity measure, in two or higher dimensions. We present the following main results. First, under suitable moment conditions on the signal powers and the intensity measure, there is percolation in the SINR graph given that the device density is high and interferences are sufficiently reduced, but not vanishing. Second, if the interference cancellation factor γ and the SINR threshold τ satisfy γ ≥ 1/(2τ), then there is no percolation for any intensity parameter. Third, in the case of a Poisson point process with constant powers, for any intensity parameter that is supercritical for the underlying Gilbert graph, the SINR graph also percolates with some small but positive interference cancellation factor. 
A. Hinsen, B. Jahnel, E. Cali, J.P. Wary, Phase transitions for chaseescape models on Gilbert graphs, Preprint no. 2642, WIAS, Berlin, 2019, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2642 .
Abstract, PDF (219 kByte)
We present results on phase transitions of local and global survival in a twospecies model on Gilbert graphs. At initial time there is an infection at the origin that propagates on the Gilbert graph according to a continuoustime nearestneighbor interacting particle system. The Gilbert graph consists of susceptible nodes and nodes of a second type, which we call white knights. The infection can spread on susceptible nodes without restriction. If the infection reaches a white knight, this white knight starts to spread on the set of infected nodes according to the same mechanism, with a potentially different rate, giving rise to a competition of chase and escape. We show welldefinedness of the model, isolate regimes of global survival and extinction of the infection and present estimates on local survival. The proofs rest on comparisons to the process on trees, percolation arguments and finitedegree approximations of the underlying random graphs. 
D. Heydecker, R.I.A. Patterson, Bilinear coagulation equations, Preprint no. 2637, WIAS, Berlin, 2019, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2637 .
Abstract, PDF (453 kByte)
We consider coagulation equations of Smoluchowski or Flory type where the total merge rate has a bilinear form π(y) · Aπ (x) for a vector of conserved quantities π, generalising the multiplicative kernel. For these kernels, a gelation transition occurs at a finite time t_{g} ∈ (0,∞), which can be given exactly in terms of an eigenvalue problem in finite dimensions. We prove a hydrodynamic limit for a stochastic coagulant, including a corresponding phase transition for the largest particle, and exploit a coupling to random graphs to extend analysis of the limiting process beyond the gelation time. 
A. Stephan, Combinatorial considerations on the invariant measure of a stochastic matrix, Preprint no. 2627, WIAS, Berlin, 2019, DOI 10.20347/WIAS.PREPRINT.2627 .
Abstract, PDF (225 kByte)
The invariant measure is a fundamental object in the theory of Markov processes. In finite dimensions a Markov process is defined by transition rates of the corresponding stochastic matrix. The Markov tree theorem provides an explicit representation of the invariant measure of a stochastic matrix. In this note, we given a simple and purely combinatorial proof of the Markov tree theorem. In the symmetric case of detailed balance, the statement and the proof simplifies even more.
Talks, Poster

S. Schindler, Selfsimilar diffusive equilibration for a coupled reactiondiffusion system with massaction kinetics, SFB910: International Conference on Control of SelfOrganizing Nonlinear Systems (Hybrid Event), August 29  September 2, 2021, Technische Universität Berlin, Potsdam, September 1, 2021.

A. Stephan, Gradient systems and EDPconvergence with applications to nonlinear fastslow reaction systems (online talk), DS21: SIAM Conference on Applications of Dynamical Systems, Minisymposium 19 ``Applications of Stochastic Reaction Networks'' (Online Event), May 23  27, 2021, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, May 23, 2021.

A. Stephan, Gradient systems and mulitscale reaction networks (online talk), Limits and control of stochastic reaction networks (Online Event), July 26  30, 2021, American Institute of Mathematics, San Jose, USA, July 29, 2021.

A. Stephan, Coarsegraining via EDPconvergence for linear fastslow reactiondiffusion systems (online talk), 91st Annual Meeting of the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (Online Event), Section S14 ``Applied Analysis'', March 15  19, 2021, Universität Kassel, March 17, 2021.

B. Jahnel, Phase transitions for the Boolean model for Cox point processes (online talk), DYOGENE Seminar (Online Event), INRIA Paris, France, January 11, 2021.

T. Orenshtein, Aging for the O'ConellYor model in intermediate disorder (online talk), Joint Israeli Probability Seminar (Online Event), Technion, Haifa, November 17, 2020.

T. Orenshtein, Aging for the stationary KPZ equation, The 3rd Haifa Probability School. Workshop on Random Geometry and Stochastic Analysis, February 24  28, 2020, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, February 24, 2020.

T. Orenshtein, Aging for the stationary KPZ equation (online talk), BernoulliIMS One World Symposium 2020 (Online Event), August 24  28, 2020, A virtual one week symposium on Probability and Mathematical Statistics, August 27, 2020.

T. Orenshtein, Aging for the stationary KPZ equation (online talk), 13th Annual ERC BerlinOxford Young Researchers Meeting on Applied Stochastic Analysis (Online Event), June 8  10, 2020, WIAS Berlin, June 10, 2020.

T. Orenshtein, Aging in EdwardsWilkinson and KPZ universality classes (online talk), Probability, Stochastic Analysis and Statistics Seminar (Online Event), University of Pisa, Italy, October 27, 2020.

A. Stephan, On gradient flows and gradient systems (online talk), CRC 1114 PhD Seminar (Online Event), Freie Universität Berlin, November 11, 2020.

A. Stephan, On gradient systems and applications to interacting particle systems (online talk), CRC 1114 PhD Seminar (Online Event), Freie Universität Berlin, November 25, 2020.

A. Stephan, Coarsegraining for gradient systems with applications to reaction systems (online talk), Thematic Einstein Semester on Energybased Mathematical Methods for Reactive Multiphase Flows: Student Compact Course ``Variational Methods for Fluids and Solids'' (Online Event), October 12  23, 2020, WIAS Berlin, October 15, 2020.

A. Stephan, EDPconvergence for nonlinear fastslow reaction systems (online talk), Annual Workshop of the GAMM Activity Group on Analysis of PDEs (Online Event), September 30  October 2, 2020, Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), Klosterneuburg, October 1, 2020.

A. Stephan, EDPconvergence for nonlinear fastslow reactions, Workshop ``Variational Methods for Evolution'', September 13  19, 2020, Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, September 18, 2020.

A. Stephan, On mathematical coarsegraining for linear reaction systems, 8th BMS Student Conference, February 19  21, 2020, Technische Universität Berlin, February 21, 2020.

R.I.A. Patterson, Interpreting LDPs without detailed balance, Workshop ``Variational Methods for Evolution'', September 13  19, 2020, Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, September 15, 2020.

A. Stephan, Rigorous derivation of the effective equation of a linear reaction system with different time scales, 90th Annual Meeting of the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (GAMM 2019), Section S14 ``Applied Analysis'', February 18  22, 2019, Universität Wien, Technische Universität Wien, Austria, February 21, 2019.

B. Jahnel, Continuum percolation in random environment, Workshop on Probability, Analysis and Applications (PAA), September 23  October 4, 2019, African Institute for Mathematical Sciences  Ghana (AIMS Ghana), Accra.

R.I.A. Patterson, A novel simulation method for stochastic particle systems, Seminar, Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Faculty of Mathematics, UK, May 9, 2019.

R.I.A. Patterson, Flux large deviations, Workshop on Chemical Reaction Networks, July 1  3, 2019, Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche ``G. L. Lagrange``, Italy, July 2, 2019.

R.I.A. Patterson, Flux large deviations, Seminar, Statistical Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Faculty of Mathematics, UK, May 7, 2019.

L. Taggi, Critical density in activated random walks, Horowitz Seminar on Probability, Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems, Tel Aviv University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Israel, May 20, 2019.

W. Dreyer, Thermodynamics and kinetic theory of nonNewtonian fluids, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Mathematische Modellierung und Analysis, June 13, 2018.

M. Kantner, Multiscale modeling and numerical simulation of singlephoton emitters, Matheon Workshop9th Annual Meeting ``Photonic Devices", Zuse Institut, Berlin, March 3, 2016.

M. Kantner, Multiscale modelling and simulation of singlephoton sources on a device level, EuroTMCS II Theory, Modelling & Computational Methods for Semiconductors, Tyndall National Institute and University College Cork, Cork, Ireland, December 9, 2016.

A. Mielke, On entropic gradient structures for classical and quantum Markov processes with detailed balance, Pure Analysis and PDEs Seminar, Imperial College London, Department of Mathematics, UK, May 11, 2016.

A. Mielke, Chemical Master Equation: Coarse graining via gradient structures, Kolloquium des SFB 1114 ``Scaling Cascades in Complex Systems'', Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Mathematik, Berlin, June 4, 2015.

A. Mielke, Geometric approaches at and for theoretical and applied mechanics, Phil Holmes Retirement Celebration, October 8  9, 2015, Princeton University, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New York, USA, October 8, 2015.

A. Mielke, The Chemical Master Equation as a discretization of the FokkerPlanck and Liouville equation for chemical reactions, Colloquium of Collaborative Research Center/Transregio ``Discretization in Geometry and Dynamics'', Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Mathematik, Berlin, February 10, 2015.

A. Mielke, The FokkerPlanck and Liouville equations for chemical reactions as largevolume approximations of the Chemical Master Equation, Workshop ``Stochastic Limit Analysis for Reacting Particle Systems'', December 16  18, 2015, WIAS Berlin, Berlin, December 18, 2015.

R.I.A. Patterson, Approximation errors for Smoluchowski simulations, 10 th IMACS Seminar on Monte Carlo Methods, July 6  10, 2015, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria, July 7, 2015.

A. Mielke, Generalized gradient structures for reactiondiffusion systems, Applied Mathematics Seminar, Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Matematica, Italy, June 17, 2014.

R.I.A. Patterson, Monte Carlo simulation of nanoparticle formation, University of Technology Eindhoven, Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Netherlands, September 5, 2013.

S. Jansen, Large deviations for interacting manyparticle systems in the Saha regime, BerlinLeipzig Seminar on Analysis and Probability Theory, July 8, 2011, Technische Universität Clausthal, Institut für Mathematik, July 8, 2011.

W. König, Eigenvalue order statistics and mass concentration in the parabolic Anderson model, BerlinLeipzig Seminar on Analysis and Probability Theory, Technische Universität Clausthal, Institut für Mathematik, July 8, 2011.

W. König, Phase transitions for dilute particle systems with LennardJones potential, University of Bath, Department of Mathematical Sciences, UK, April 14, 2010.

W. König, Phase transitions for dilute particle systems with LennardJones potential, Workshop on Mathematics of Phase Transitions: Past, Present, Future, November 12  15, 2009, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, November 15, 2009.
External Preprints

D. Heydecker , R.I.A. Patterson, Kac interaction clusters: A bilinear coagulation equation and phase transition, Preprint no. arXiv:1902.07686, Cornell University Library, 2019.
Abstract
We consider the interaction clusters for Kac's model of a gas with quadratic interaction rates, and show that they behave as coagulating particles with a bilinear coagulation kernel. In the large particle number limit the distribution of the interaction cluster sizes is shown to follow an equation of Smoluchowski type. Using a coupling to random graphs, we analyse the limiting equation, showing wellposedness, and a closed form for the time of the gelation phase transition tg when a macroscopic cluster suddenly emerges. We further prove that the second moment of the cluster size distribution diverges exactly at tg. Our methods apply immediately to coagulating particle systems with other bilinear coagulation kernels.