Dark matter is the most mysterious substance.in the Universe. It is so mysterious that no one still knows for sure whether it really exists. This unique substance, of which perhaps 80% of our Universe is composed, does not interact with the outside world in any way: it can neither be seen nor touched. Despite this sad fact, even their own holiday, Dark Matter Day, celebrated by scientists on October 31, was established in honor of this plainly not yet discovered substance. Well, a celebration in honor of dark matter is far from the only oddity of such a mysterious substance.
What is dark matter?
In the 1930s, a Swiss astronomer named FritzZwicky noticed that galaxies in a distant cluster revolve around each other much faster than they should. The scientist suggested that the invisible substance, which he called dark matter, can gravitationally attract these galaxies and somehow stick them together, preventing them from scattering in different directions of the Universe.
Almost 90 years have passed, but the researchers neverwere able to get to the answer to the nature of dark matter. The only thing we know for sure is that this mysterious material can be found throughout the cosmos and that it is much more common in the universe than the matter we see. Well, perhaps, the inability to understand the composition of a mysterious substance can be considered the first strangeness of a unique substance.
Is it possible to detect dark matter?
If dark matter is unable to interactwith ordinary matter, can we at least somehow detect it? Perhaps this is the question that was asked by scientists who conducted experiment after experiment in the hope of finding the very coveted particle of dark matter. Despite the long years of searching, traces of dark matter on Earth were never found.
You will be wondering: What if dark matter is not particles?
From a school physics course you are most likelyyou know that ordinary matter consists of particles such as protons and electrons, as well as a whole zoo of more exotic particles, such as neutrinos, muons and peonies. Trying to find dark matter, the researchers wondered whether this mysterious substance can be as complex as ordinary matter.
According to a researcher from HarvardAndrei Katz University, there is no reason to assume that all the dark matter in the Universe is built from one type of particles. So, dark protons can combine with dark electrons to form dark atoms, creating configurations as diverse and interesting as those in the visible world.
Along with additional particles of dark matterit is possible that she experiences forces similar to those experienced by ordinary matter. Some researchers have looked for “dark photons” that would look like photons appearing between normal particles. If one day they are discovered, then such a discovery will mark a new stage in the study of the properties of the Universe.
Is there dark matter in our galaxy?
Since dark matter in the universe is muchmore than usual, it is often said that it is a certain controlling force that organizes such large structures as galaxies and galactic clusters. That is why the discovery of a galaxy called NGC 1052-DF2 was a complete surprise, since this structure does not contain dark matter at all. As for the Milky Way galaxy, scientists found the main accumulation of dark matter right in the center of our galaxy. What caused such a strange and heterogeneous distribution of the mysterious substance in the Universe is still unknown. However, if someday this mystery is revealed, humanity may well become a witness to the development of a new science.
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