Space

# facts | Why did Neil Armstrong become the first person to make a move on the moon?

July 20, 1969, thanks to "one littleStep ”Neil Armstrong became the first person in history to take the first step on the surface of the moon. But why did Armstrong become this very first person? 45 years have passed since then, and all this time, that same landing on the moon has been the object of close research and historical analysis.

Starting with the very famous phrase thatArmstrong said, taking the first steps on the Moon, and ending with the American flag, which was installed on the satellite of our planet - all this is still the subject of lively discussion, analysis and even disputes that have literally riveted the attention of all of humanity. But despite all this, there are still some little-known and no less interesting facts related to this lunar program. And about some of them decided to tell the portal Gizmodo.

Neil Armstrong was chosen as the first person to go to the moon due to the specific design of the Eagle capsule.

From a group of 29 astronauts,trained for the Apollo mission to the moon, only three people were selected, announced in January 1969. Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and often forgotten Michael Collins became official members of the Apollo 11 team. In society, disputes immediately flared up about which of the crew members — Armstrong or Aldrin — would be the first person to take a step onto the surface of the moon (Collins was the pilot of the main docking module and, for obvious reasons, was not suitable for this role).

Even though in the end by the Moonboth were able to be like, becoming the first was a very great honor. Before the launch of the press conference, the question of who exactly would get this honor was left unanswered. It was only said that the decision has not yet been made.

In the next four months, the astronauts passedintensive training, and rumors appeared in the press and society more actively and there was a discussion about the unresolved issue. At first it seemed to everyone that it was Aldrin who would receive this honor. This opinion was formed after the incident with the program “Gemini”, whose task was to train astronauts and test ships for future spacewalk. During the flights, the commander (whose role for the Apollo 11 program should have been given to Armstrong) remained inside the ship, while the pilot (whose role in the Apollo 11 mission went to Aldrin) made an exit to open space. This development gave rise to the opinion that it was Aldrin who would become the first person to take the first step to the Moon. According to Chris Kraft, who wrote several memoirs, “Buzz” desperately wanted him to be given the opportunity and even publicly express this desire.

In April next year, that is, in three monthsbefore being sent to the moon, it was announced that Neil Armstrong would be the first person to walk on the moon. The main reason for this choice, as explained in NASA, is that the hatch cover of the Eagle module had the ability to open only in one direction, and not in different. In the open position, the lid occupied most of that side of the space where the Aldrin pilot was, forcing him to literally squeeze between it and the module wall. In turn, the side of Commander Armstrong was completely free and opened up to him trouble-free access to the hatch. From the point of view of ordinary logic, Armstrong was easier to get to the hatch and, therefore, it was he who had to go first. In addition, NASA then noted that in any case Armstrong was the senior crew member and entered the program before the rest of the year 1962, Aldrin, in turn, connected to it in 1963.

In subsequent years, despite the officialthe story of the hatch, some, including Krafft and his friend astronaut Alan Bean, believe that NASA decided to give this honor to Armstrong rather than to Aldrin because Neil was more charismatic than Aldrin. Therefore, most likely, the story of the hatch only added the necessary official details when the decision was announced.

According to Armstrong's brother, the phrase "one small step" was prepared in advance

Until his last breath in 2012,Armstrong never ceased to assure everyone that the first part of the famous phrase was spontaneous and was invented straight at the moment when he was making the first step. The BBC documentary, which appeared on television after the astronaut's death, describes this controversial fact. In this film, Dean Armstrong (Nile's brother) tells the story that this famous phrase was invented while playing the Risk board game at home.

Months before the actual start of the Dean mission,Neil and their families spent time together on Cape Cod Peninsula (USA). When the men sent their children to sleep, Neal offered his brother to play the board game Risk. During the game, Neil handed Dean a piece of paper:

"On this piece of paper was written: "This little step for man will be a giant leap for all of humanity." Then he asked: "How are you?" I replied that it was "great." Then he said: "I knew that you would like it, but I wanted you to read it yourself."

They say that Aldrin and Collins made it clear to everyone that Armstrong had never said that to anyone or anyone else. Most likely, the brother of Nile fell under the exception to the rule.

The second thing, pronounced on the moon, was not as poetic as the first

If everyone remembers the first part of the phrase,then not everyone can accurately recall its second part. All because she did not cause the same spiritual impulse. According to the Apollo-11 voice transcriptor, which transmitted messages from the Moon to Earth, the second phrase was: “and the surface ... the surface is dry and dusty”.

Armstrong continued speaking, trying to find words:

“I can, I can easily lift it with a toe of a shoe. It is a thin layer, like a layer of crushed charcoal, sticks to the sole and sides of my shoes. I made only a small movement of the foot, a fraction of an inch, maybe an eighth of an inch, but I see how the tracks of my shoes were covered with small sand particles. ”

After further discussion of the ease of movement on the moon, the astronauts began to discuss and choose the place where Buzz should have installed the camera and the backlight.

President Nixon prepared in advance a speech on the “Catastrophe on the Moon”

After the tragic death of the ship and crewApollo 1 in 1967, the question of space travel, and in particular the safe return of the Apollo 11 team to Earth, was far from being resolved from all points of view. Given this state of affairs, President Nixon had to prepare in advance several variants of speech for addressing the nation on any of the possible cases, including the tragic. For this case, Nixon had a speechwriter, William Safir, who wrote the tragic, but at the same time inspiring speech of the president in case she needed it. The speech began with these lines:

"The fate that placed on people the responsibilityto go with the world to the moon to explore, made these people stay on the moon and rest in peace. These brave people, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, knew that they had no hope of returning home safely. But they also knew that their sacrifice would not be in vain and would become a real hope for all of humanity. ”

In addition to the "talk about the death of the astronauts"the president was given instructions on what to do before and after the appeal to his nation. Before the appeal, the president should "personally call each of the astronauts' widows." After the President’s address, “at the farewell ceremony, which would have to take place with the participation of a priest and in the tradition of sea burial, the leaders of NASA would have to be present”.