Research

Can you 100% protect yourself from coronavirus? And what is COVID-19 nasal spray?

The situation with COVID-19 in Russia is nowhere worse.According to Rosstat, almost 300,000 people have died in our country since the beginning of the year as a result of the severe course of the coronavirus. Think about these numbers. Every day, the disease claims the lives of more than a thousand people, and the number of registered cases is approaching 40 thousand per day. Against this background, the upcoming lockdown in the regions looks at least justified (as a maximum - necessary), moreover, more and more people are trying to get vaccinated against a deadly disease. And yet, the number of vaccinated in the country barely exceeds 30%. Recently, the director of the Gamaleya National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Alexander Gintsburg, said that a set of measures consisting of immunization with Sputnik V and revaccination with a nasal vaccine can protect against coronavirus by 100 percent. It sounds promising, but still raises questions, because no vaccine in the world guarantees 100% protection against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. However, the results of new studies show that immunity from vector vaccines is more effective than those based on mRNA.

Tests of a nasal spray against covid-19 have started in Russia. Developer: Center im Gamalei

Content

  • 1 Vaccination against COVID-19 in Russia and in the world
  • 2 Vaccines based on adenovirus
  • 3 mRNA vaccines
  • 4 Which vaccine is more effective?
  • 5 Sputnik V Nasal Spray: What is known?

Vaccination against COVID-19 in Russia and in the world

To date, there are 18 registeredvaccines against coronavirus infection. On the official website of the Ministry of Finance, anyone can familiarize themselves with both the list of vaccines and the statistics of morbidity and vaccination.

As of 28 October 2021, moreof all those vaccinated against COVID-19 live in the UAE (95%), Portugal (88%), Cuba (86%), Chile (84%), Qatar (84%) and Spain (81%). The rest of the list members are on average at around 70%.

These figures are eloquent like nothing else.In all countries where the vaccination rate of the population is 60%, the incidence is falling rapidly. Where this figure reaches 80-90%, the number of reported cases of COVID-19 tends to zero. Therefore, there are practically no restrictions in these countries.

Ministry of Finance: world statistics of vaccination

Against this background, Russia, with its 32%, looks softlet's say not very much. Especially when there are several effective vaccines available. You can talk a lot and for a long time about what went wrong. But let's leave these fascinating topics to colleagues and focus on the numbers and research data.

I shared another alarming figure todayRosstat. As RBC calculated, after carefully studying the data, in Russia since the beginning of 2021, as a result of the severe course of COVID-19, close to 300,000 people have died. Some experts believe that the official figures need to be multiplied several times.

The absolute peak of covid mortality in Russia was recorded in July - 51,044 people, compared with which the figure in August decreased by only 2%, - write RBC.

By October, the situation with covid in Russia worsened, and mortality also increased. Against this background, a lockdown has been announced in our country, or, in the words from the TV, “non-working days”.

More on the topic: What is known about the new variants of the coronavirus?

Adenovirus vaccines

But let's turn to scientific research. A paper recently published in The New England Journal of Medicine showed that in eight months the titer of antibodies from mRNA vaccines drops tenfold, and from the vector - on the same adenovirus as "Sputnik V" - practically does not decrease.

To understand what this data means,let's pay attention to the types of vaccines and start with vector ones. So, in a vector or adenovirus vaccine, a virus that lacks a gene for reproduction is used. After entering the body, specific proteins begin to be produced that activate the body's immune response (while not developing disease). An example of this type of vaccine is the Ebola virus vaccine.

Three types of vaccine development. Image: WHO

More on the topic: How many antibodies do I have after the second vaccination Sputnik V

According to WHO experts, there is three main approaches to vaccine development depending on what is used forimmunization: whole virus or bacteria; fragments of a microorganism that cause an immune response; only genetic material containing the code for the synthesis of specific proteins, not a whole virus.

MRNA vaccines

The emergence of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 is,almost a scientific breakthrough. According to the WHO classification, this type of vaccine contains only genetic material. A section of this genetic structure that contains a program for the generation of specific proteins is used by the cells of the body to make proteins. Wherein DNA first turns into messenger RNA, which is then used as a program for the production of specific proteins.

MRNA vaccines, WHO image

In other words, the mRNA of the vaccine,or nucleic acid vaccines that allow cells to make proteins of the pathogen. In general, they insert into the body a set of instructions in the form of mRNA or DNA, forcing them to synthesize the desired specific protein. It is it that our immune system recognizes, which allows the body to develop a pathogenic immune response.

Technology using geneticmaterial represents a new way of producing vaccines. For more information on what mRNA-based vaccines are and why scientists believe they will help fight tumors, read the material of my colleague Andrey Zhukov.

Which vaccine is more effective?

Now let's move on to the results of the study.In the course of the work, scientists compared the levels of antibodies in vaccinated with three types of vaccines: from Moderna, from Johnson & Johnson and from Pfizer. It should be noted that the sample is not large - 61 people took part in the study. Nevertheless, the results obtained are surprising.

If you try to announce the results more or lessin simple terms, it looks like the vector vaccines have a real "marathon" effect. And if you have the opportunity to combine mRNA vaccines with vector vaccines, do not forget about it.

The decline in antibody levels is the main reason for the drop in protection against COVID-19.

In another study, subjectscompleted special questionnaires to collect socio-demographic information and health status. Every week, all subjects were tested for coronavirus. They also underwent a series of additional examinations, carefully describing all the symptoms at the beginning and at the end of the disease. In total, about 4000 participants were registered.

Coronavirus vaccination is the only way to defeat the COVID-19 pandemic

A total of 170 participants were identifiedsigns of SARS-CoV-2 before vaccination, 139 did not get sick either before or after vaccination, and 50 of them were tested both after vaccination and after infection. 92% of confirmed cases were asymptomatic. Of the 170 participants with signs of infection, 158 had neutralizing antibodies in their serum.

Characteristics of the infection, such as the presencesymptoms did not affect the titer of neutralizing antibodies. Also, no connection was found between the titer of neutralizing antibodies and the load of viral RNA, the authors of the scientific work write.

Thus, compared to those who received Pfizer-BioNTech (as supported by a number of scientific studies), the antibody titer is higher in those who received the Moderna vaccine. At the same time, experts note that the greatest protection against COVID-19 is provided not only for those who have been vaccinated, but also for those who have been ill and then vaccinated.

For you and me, these results literally meanthe need for revaccination. Indeed, regardless of the type of vaccine, the antibody titer drops over time. And if the Russians are not revaccinated every six months, their level of protection against covid will decrease (we are talking about the drug "Sputnik V").

Moreover, as Naked Science writes, if you haveit is possible to combine western mRNA and vector vaccines; it is better to make the booster doses vector. This will allow the antibodies to be raised faster with the first mRNA injection and will create a longer protection against the second, vector drug.

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Sputnik V nasal spray: what is known?

So we come to the most interesting - reallydevelop a vaccine that will be 100% effective against coronavirus? The answer probably sounds like this: recently the Head of the Center. Gamalei told RIA Novosti that two injections of the Sputnik V vaccine, along with a nasal spray, can provide 100% protection against COVID-19.

Two doses of Sputnik V, along with a nasal vaccine, should provide 100% protection against coronavirus.

Sputnik V, together with a nasal vaccine, canprotect against COVID-19 by 100%. We assume, although this will need to be studied during clinical trials, that such immunity will be sterile, that is, a vaccinated person will have not only humoral, but also mucosal immunity at the level of the entrance gate, ”said the head of the research institute.

According to him, a similar method of drug administrationcreates an "independent barrier" in the path of the virus, preventing its penetration. Recall that recently the Ministry of Health allowed researchers from the Gamaleya Center to conduct clinical trials of a nasal vaccine against coronavirus (SPRAY 08-Gam-COVID-Vac-2021).

Don't Miss: Myths & Facts About COVID-19 Vaccination. We disassemble on the fingers!

Overall, achieving 100% protection againstCOVID-19 is the target of researchers around the world, so let's wish our scientists the best of luck! I have no doubt about them (even if the effectiveness of the nasal vaccine is 98%).