In comics and science fiction films, we oftenshow heroes who are able to regenerate parts of their bodies. For example, Wolverine and Deadpool from the Marvel Universe have such an ability. Restoration of damaged tissues and entire organs in the scientific language is called regeneration... This feature is inherent in many animals.like worms, lizards, and even newborn rats. But did you know that ordinary people also have the ability to regenerate? Right now as you read this article, some of your tissues are being replaced with new ones. At the very least, you renew the outer layer of the skin, referred to as epidermis... Old cells gradually fall off and turn into dust, and new ones appear in their place. But the renewal of the outer layer of the skin is far from the only proof of a person's ability to regenerate.
Hair and nail restoration
Another fairly obvious example of regeneration inthe human body is hair and nails. Human hair grows throughout life. The rate of their growth is individual for each person, because everything depends on gender, age and heredity. But in the course of research it was found that men grow hair faster than women. On average, the hair on the head grows 1.5 centimeters per month. Of course, this is only relevant if the person does not have alopecia - partial or complete hair loss. According to statistics, about 40% of men suffer from this problem.
A person's fingernails and toenails grow more slowly,than hair. On average, in a week, fingernails grow by about 2 millimeters, and on legs - by 1 millimeter. Full nail renewal, that is, its regeneration, occurs approximately every six months. And we need nails to hold objects and protect fingertips, because there are important nerve endings. So nails are a very important part of the human body and they must be renewed.
Interesting fact: in Central Asia and Persia, people believed that the soul of a person was in the nails. The clipped nails were buried in the ground or burned so that they would not fall into the hands of witches.
Regeneration of body parts
Besides hair and nails, in the human bodybones are restored. After all, how else to explain the fact that with fractures in people bones grow together? The liver is also capable of regeneration. With the loss of a part of the liver up to 85%, the remaining fragments begin to increase in size. But it is important to understand that this is not due to an increase in the number of cells, but due to an increase in their size. Surprisingly, in this way, the liver can restore its original mass.
Also in medicine, there are cases when peoplerestored lost fingertips. But this happened only in strictly defined cases and not completely. In 2008, the BBC reported on a man named Lee Spivak who stuck his finger into the propeller of a toy plane and lost a fingertip. The doctors were sure that it would not be possible to return the lost 1.5 centimeters of the finger. But over time, he recovered and even a nail grows on him. He was able to restore a part of the body thanks to the "magic powder", which is actually made from cells obtained from the inside of the bladder of pigs. This experimental tool was developed by employees of an American university. It was expected to help restore tissue after serious wounds, but nothing has been heard about it for a long time.
The nerves also have the ability to recover.cells, which contradicts the expression "nerves are not restored". In the course of scientific work, scientists have already become convinced that the human central nervous system has the ability to neurogenesis. During this process, new neurons are created and form connections between themselves.
See also: Do lung cells recover after a person quit smoking?
The retina is the part of the eye thatreacts to light. It contains light-sensitive rods, cones, and nerve cells that transmit information about brightness to the brain. Damage to the retina is the leading cause of blindness in humans. And it would be great if scientists suddenly came up with a way to restore her tissue. It seems that researchers from the US state of Maryland are close to this.
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They already knew that some livingcreatures like the Danio rerio fish are able to repair the retina. Certain genes are responsible for this, which are even in the human body. According to researchers, humans do share 70% of their genes with these tiny creatures. Based on this, it is hoped that in the future, scientists will develop a way to restore the retina using genetic engineering. It has long been thought that retinal-repairing genes do not work in mammals. However, there is now hope that the researchers were wrong.