Research, Technology

Biological weapons - the history of occurrence and use

About biological weapons and biolaboratories in everythingthe world started talking with the start of the COVID 19 pandemic. Moreover, this topic was raised not only by conspiracy theorists, but also by the governments of many large countries, such as the United States. Moreover, the special services conducted serious investigations into this matter. But the version of the man-made origin of the virus is still not confirmed. After the start of the military operation in Ukraine, biological weapons were discussed again. But what exactly is it and what is its danger? Its main feature is that the damaging element is pathogenic microorganisms or their spores, as well as viruses and bacterial toxins. Unlike other weapons, it does not act instantly. It is mainly used to defeat enemy manpower. In addition, such weapons can be used to destroy food by infecting livestock and crops. Like other weapons of mass destruction, bioweapons have been banned by the Geneva Protocol since the 20s of the last century, but despite this they have been repeatedly used in the modern history of mankind.

Biological weapons have been banned by the Geneva Protocol since 1925, but have been repeatedly used since then.

What is a biological weapon

As a rule, for biological weapons inlaboratories develop special types of viruses and bacteria that meet certain tasks. For greater effectiveness and lethality of such weapons, a combination of viruses and bacterial spores is usually used.

Traditional methods are used to deliver pathogens.weapons such as aerial bombs, artillery shells and mines. After the rupture of such ammunition, a bacterial cloud arises, which spreads through the air and infects a certain area. The area of ​​infection depends on the amount of bacterial formulation (powder or aerosols with pathogens), as well as wind speed.

After the explosion of a projectile with a biological weapon, a bacteriological cloud spreads that infects the territory

In addition, pathogens can be sprayed or dropped from aircraft. Sometimes, in order to infect the enemy during the withdrawal, the military leaves contaminated household items - clothes, cigarettes, food, etc.

Features of the impact of biological weapons

Consequences of the use of biological weaponsdepend on the type of pathogen. As a rule, they cause severe, often fatal diseases. But they don't show up right away. There is always an incubation period that passes unnoticed. Often during the incubation period, the infected person becomes contagious and infects others.

According to many experts, bacteriologicalweapons are in some ways even more dangerous than nuclear weapons. Earlier we said that the consequences of a nuclear war would be horrendous, but it would not lead to the complete extinction of mankind. But biological weapons theoretically may well lead to the fact that the human race will disappear from the face of the Earth.

Scientists still have not been able to find a way to overcome the HIV virus

Of course, medicine has advanced in many ways.questions, however, it is too early to talk about a complete victory over viruses and bacteria. The COVID-19 pandemic is a prime example of this. Fortunately, at the moment it was possible to stop it. However, how the pandemic will end is still not clear. In addition, there are many diseases that are still considered incurable to this day. These include HIV and some types of hepatitis.

Feature of bacteriological weaponsis that pathogens do not understand who is theirs and who is a stranger. Bacteria and viruses infect all living things that get in their way. True, modern biological weapons, as a rule, contain strains that are not transmitted from person to person. This prevents the uncontrolled spread of pathogens. But viruses are known to be able to mutate, which makes such weapons generally unpredictable.

History of the use of biological weapons

Many may think that biological weaponsis a modern invention. But actually it is not. It is the oldest type of weapon of mass destruction. According to some sources, even in the ancient Romans, during the siege of cities, the corpses of people who died from the plague were thrown over the walls of fortresses. These measures were quite effective, because in conditions of high population density and poor hygiene, the epidemic quickly covered the enemy population.

There is also evidence that theKhan Dzhanibek was involved in the spread of bubonic plague in Europe in 1346, who failed in an attempt to capture the city of Kafa (Feodosia). He took advantage of the reception of the ancient Romans, and threw the corpse of the deceased from the plague into the fortress. At the same time, merchants who fled the city brought the disease to Europe.

In 1763, the British used smallpox blankets against the Indians.

First documented use casebiological weapons occurred in 1763. Then smallpox was deliberately spread among the Indians who were trying to capture Fort Pitt. Then the British military distributed among the Indians blankets infected with smallpox.

I must say that the British were actively developingbiological weapons during the Third World War. In particular, in 1942, weapons were developed and tested on Gruinard Island. As a result, the island was infected with anthrax spores. For almost half a century, he remained in quarantine until 1990.

According to Japanese media, the United States tested biological weapons on the island of Okinawa

Noted in the use of prohibited weapons and the United States.According to the report of the international scientific commission, the Americans used bioweapons against the DPRK. Moreover, 804 cases of its use were recorded in 169 districts. Also, according to the Kyodo news agency, US military personnel tested biological weapons on the island of Okinawa in the early 60s of the last century. This is evidenced by secret documents that fell into the hands of the Japanese media, as reported by Kommersant. In addition, a number of other cases of the use or development of biological weapons have been recorded in the world. Basically, they all belong to the middle of the last century.

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Finally, note that fixthe use of bacterial weapons during military conflicts, and even more so to identify what type of virus was used, is quite difficult. Bacteria and viruses are odorless or colorless. Their effect does not appear immediately. Accordingly, for the detection of biological weapons, laboratory research is required, which requires a significant amount of time. Therefore, it is quite possible that not all cases are known to the public.