The beginning of the winter of 2022 turned out to be very cold - inIn most regions of Russia, the temperature tends to -15 degrees and below. Due to a sharp cold snap, some people did not have time to get used to the new conditions and went outside in light clothes, which increased the frequency of colds. But in the cold season, a cold is not the worst thing that can happen to a person. Walking without a hat and gloves can result in frostbite on the ears, fingers and other parts of the body. If this process is allowed to take its course, the cells of the body may die, after which amputation may be necessary. As part of this article, we propose to find out in what weather a person risks freezing parts of his body and what to do if this happens. When there are frosts outside the window, this is very relevant information.
- 1 Air temperature during frostbite of the body
- 2 What happens during frostbite
- 3 Signs of frostbite of the body and limbs
- 4 First aid for frostbite
- 5 How to avoid frostbite
Air temperature during frostbite
Most often, people freeze body parts whenair temperature -15 degrees and below. In some cases, frostbite occurs at other times of the year if a person stands outside for a long time in conditions of high humidity and strong winds.
Cold damages performers firstparts of the body: ears, nose, fingers and toes. Young people are at high risk of frostbite because they are often easier to dress. Men and women with alcoholism are at risk of suffering even more from the cold - sometimes situations arise when they fall asleep on the street and freeze. In a state of blackout, they do not notice the cold and frostbite, which is why the consequences are terrible. Sometimes it ends in death.
In addition to weather conditions and being immobile, frostbite can occur due to light and tight clothing, wet shoes, and so on.
See also: Can a person survive when body temperature drops below 36 degrees?
What Happens During Frostbite
When exposed to temperatures around -15 degrees,Frostbite occurs due to spasm of blood vessels. It leads to a slowdown in blood flow - a minimum of oxygen and nutrients begins to flow to the tissues of the body, which causes cell death.
At a temperature of -30 degrees and below, the cold begins to act directly on the tissues, and cell death occurs even faster.
Signs of frostbite of the body and limbs
Frostbite is usually classified according to the extent and depth of the lesions. In each case, the signs of damage to the body are different.
Frostbite levels include:
- light, in which the skin turns pale, chills and difficulty in speech occur;
- middle, at which body temperature can drop to 32 degrees, and the skin takes on a marbled hue;
- heavy when the body temperature falls below 31 degrees, the person loses consciousness and icing is observed on the skin.
According to the depth of lesions, the classification is as follows:
- frostbite I degree - on the affected area, there is a burning sensation and numbness, and then itching and pain occur. This is the mildest form of frostbite, in which cell death does not occur and recovery occurs in 5-7 days;
- frostbite II degree - in addition to loss of sensitivity, bubbles with a clear liquid appear on the skin. The pain is more intense and the treatment lasts longer, more than a week. Scars after blisters do not remain;
- frostbite III degree - with more severe damage, bubblesfilled with bloody fluid. The affected area of the body hurts, but does not feel anything when exposed to irritants such as sharp objects. If the fingers are affected, the nails can come off - after that they grow deformed or do not grow at all;
- frostbite IV degree - cold affects all layers of the body, down to the bones. When a person enters the heat, edema begins to develop rapidly. Due to tissue death, amputation threatens.
Related article: Scientists have created a frostbite cream that prevents cell death
First aid for frostbite
First of all, with frostbite, a person needstake to a warm place. In this case, it is necessary to remove wet shoes and other items of clothing. In the process, you also need to call an ambulance - the sooner experts intervene in the matter, the better.
Further, it all depends on the degree of frostbite:
- frostbite I degree requires applying a bandage with cotton wool and gauze to the damaged area of the body. It is impossible to rub the damaged area - this can cause tissue damage;
- frostbite II-IV degrees also requires the imposition of a heat-insulating bandage. The affected areas are fixed with the help of improvised means like planks or at least thick cardboard - their movement should not be allowed.
In addition to a bandage, people with frostbite are also given hot tea and food.
IMPORTANT: in case of frostbite, the affected areas cannot be actively warmed by lowering into hot water, rubbed, massaged and lubricated with something.
How to avoid frostbite
To never become a victim of frostbite, you need to follow a number of rules:
- wear loose clothing - the presence of air between the jacket, sweater and other items of clothing helps to keep warm. Also, loose clothing ensures a normal blood supply;
- always wear a hat, mittens and a scarf - in winter, these are mandatory wardrobe items that will save you from all cold-related problems;
- If it's cold outside, go to the nearest room - to warm up, it is enough to walk around the store;
- do not drink alcohol on the street - it dilates blood vessels, and the body quickly loses heat.
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Most importantly, nowhere and never needpanic - sometimes people survive even in the most severe cases. We once talked about Jean Hilliard, who literally froze to the bone, but at the same time survived. Here is the story.