If the vampire aristocrat Count Dracula describedin the novel of the Irish writer Bram Stoker, in fact existed, he would have already moved from Transylvania to Japan. The fact is that Japanese scientists invented real artificial blood. The study is published in the American journal Transfusion. According to the results of the work, artificial blood can be transfused to all patients, regardless of blood type. According to experts, this discovery can be a real breakthrough in medical practice.
Why do people need blood?
Do you know how to distinguish a person from a robot? If you watched the animated series “Futurama”, then perhaps remember that in one of the series the main character was placed in a psychiatric hospital for robots. When he was discharged, he was sure that he was a real robot. The hero remained in error exactly until he was injured and saw his own blood. But why do people need blood?
This red liquid makes up only 6-8% ofhuman body mass. Blood consists of an aqueous solution called plasma, cells and cell fragments such as red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. In general, blood is the fluid connective tissue of the body’s internal environment, which circulates through the vascular system. Blood circulation occurs under the influence of the force of a rhythmically contracting hollow fibro-muscular organ - the heart. Blood has a characteristic red color due to the presence of hemoglobin in the blood cells - red blood cells - which carries oxygen.
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Blood performs a large amountvital functions: transfers oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs, delivers nutrients to the tissues of the body, regulates body temperature and connects the organs and systems of the body and other protective and mechanical functions.
What blood types are there?
Do you know your blood type? If for some reason you are not in the know, we advise you to fix it. And here's why: each person has an individual blood group, which he is endowed with from birth. Blood type remains unchanged throughout life. When it comes to blood groups, specialists have in mind the ABO system (a-be-zero), as well as Rh (Rh factor).
The blood group is determined by the so-called antigens -they are found in red blood cells or red blood cells. An antigen is a structure on the surface of a cell. If the antigen is foreign to the body, then the protective reaction will not take long. Also important is the Rh factor. Rh factor affiliation is negative or positive. The status of Rh depends on the antigen D, which is located on the surface of red blood cells. If antigen D is present on the surface of red blood cells, then the status is considered Rh-positive, and if antigen D is absent, then Rh-negative. Therefore, when blood transfusion is necessary with an accuracy of 100% to know the blood group and its Rh factor.
Blood transfusion may be necessary for patients ina wide variety of cases, however, the most common is blood loss due to trauma. Due to the fact that each person’s blood type is individual, there are donor centers where people donate blood voluntarily. That is why the discovery of Japanese scientists is an incredibly important event for medicine. However, at the moment, artificial blood has not been tested in humans.
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What is known about making artificial blood?
Scientists from the National College of MedicineDefense conducted artificial blood tests on 10 rabbits. All animals were injured and suffered from severe blood loss. During the study, 6 rabbits survived. In the control group, in which rabbits received a real blood transfusion, the results were the same. At the same time, experts note that no side effects from the use of artificial blood were found.
According to the Japanese newspaper The Asahi Shimbun,in the near future, scientists will move on to human trials. The invention can be extremely useful in cases where a certain type of blood is not available for transfusion. Experts note that it is quite difficult to stock up with enough blood for transfusion in remote regions, such as islands. Artificial blood can save many lives. Also, according to the results of the study, artificial blood can be transfused directly in ambulances, as there will be no need to determine the blood type of patients.
Another plus of artificial blood is thatthe fact that it can be stored at room temperature for a year. Artificial blood contains platelets that ensure that blood can clot and wounds heal over time, as well as red blood cells that deliver oxygen to vital organs.
We hope that human trials will be successful and in the future, doctors will be able to save more lives.