Nuclear reactions occurring on the Sun generatea huge number of neutral elementary particles called neutrinos, which freely penetrate through matter, exerting a very weak effect on it. Every second 60 billion elusive neutrinos pass through a square centimeter of the Earth's surface. As a result, special equipment and original techniques are required to register and study these elementary particles.
To fix and study neutrinos, scientistsuse the property of an elementary particle to leave evidence of its existence when passing through individual substances. One of such natural environments is pure water, which is used as an indicator in modern devices for detecting neutrinos. Such devices are usually hidden deep underground and are gigantic reservoirs of clean water and sensors that can record the passage of neutrinos.
Russian scientists, together with Czech,German, Polish and Slovak researchers decided to use the deepest lake in the world, Baikal, filled with the purest fresh water, as a natural reservoir for fixing neutrinos. For this purpose, a special telescope Baikal-GVD, which records elementary particles, was lowered 3.5 km from the lake shore to a depth of 1300 meters.
Technically Baikal-GVD isa crystal ball with supersensitive sensors located inside and capable of detecting neutrinos in a volume of water up to half a cubic kilometer around the telescope. According to a representative of the developer from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, the telescope's sensitivity will be doubled in the near future.
The study of neutrinos from the bottom of Lake Baikal will help mankind come closer to solving many scientific mysteries, such as, for example, the origin of dark matter, consisting of neutrinos.