The scientific team of astronomers of the internationalProject Event Horizon Telescope (EHT, Event Horizon Telescope), which is the author of the world's first photograph of a black hole in the center of the galaxy Messier 87 (M87) in the constellation Virgo, presented another picture of the black hole, taken in polarized light. As a result, scientists were able to measure the polarization for the first time, confirming the existence of magnetic fields in the immediate vicinity of the edge of the black hole.
Observation results will be an important milestone inexplaining the nature of the origin of high-energy jets - jet emissions from the core of the galaxy M87, located at a distance of 55 million light-years from Earth. According to the EHT astronomers, scientists got another fact that can shed light on the behavior of magnetic fields in the immediate vicinity of the black hole and reveal the mystery of "... the formation of the most powerful jets that go far beyond the galaxy" (5000 light years from its center).
Black holes are among the brightestobjects in the Universe, which can be explained by the processes of gravitational absorption by the accretion disk of huge masses of matter taking place beyond the event horizon. This entire process is accompanied by radiation perpendicular to the axis of the black hole of jets, which emit a luminous flux exceeding the light emanating from the disk itself. Bright jets are jets of energy and matter emanating from the core of galaxy M87 and extending at least 5,000 light-years from the galactic center.
Research results are based on observationsheld in April 2017. In the course of research, it was revealed that the dark orange radiation penetrates the magnetic field surrounding the disk of the black hole. Field boundaries can be measured and mapped fairly accurately. To examine the lines of the magnetic field emanating from the black hole, astronomers were able to after using analogs of polarized sunglasses.
As a result, the tension was measuredthe magnetic field in the immediate vicinity of the black hole, the parameters of the plasma are determined, and a map of the force field is created. Astronomers were able to determine the average rate of increment (accretion) of the mass of black holes, which is (3–20) × 10-4 of the mass of our Sun per year. The plasma is heated to a temperature of (1–12) × 1010 Kelvin, and the magnetic field strength is from 1 to 30 Gauss. The density of the plasma at the edge of the black hole is 104-7 particles per cubic cm.
Observations have shown that magnetic fields atthe outskirts of the black hole are strong enough to repel hot gas, preventing it from being absorbed by gravitational attraction. That part of the gas that manages to slip through the "magnetic barrier" and forms a spiral flow rushing towards the event horizon.
For the observation of the galaxy M87, the Event Horizon projectTelescope has combined eight telescopes around the world to create a virtual telescope the size of the Earth. The study of the galaxy M87 is now possible at a resolution similar to the resolution at which the size of a credit card lying on the surface of the moon can be obtained from Earth.