9 phenomena and phenomena that science can not yet explain

People have uncovered many earthly riddles and secrets.and even visited the moon. But there are a large number of phenomena and phenomena that are not yet explicable. Of course, scientists have hypotheses, theories and assumptions about those phenomena that we will talk about today, but no one can say exactly why they occur.

Here are 9 puzzles that are still baffled by experts from around the world.

Scientists still do not know why we are yawning

People yawn every day, but scientists still don’tfigured out why. Recently, a hypothesis has been proposed, according to which yawning is a thermoregulatory mechanism that allows us to cool our brain, but the true function of this process is still not clear to science.

Another mystery to scientists is whyyawning is "contagious" among many social animals, such as man. In 2005, a study was published in the journal Cognitive Brain Research, which stated that the brain regions responsible for empathy (empathy) and social skills are activated at the moment when one person sees how the other is yawning. The study stated that the same reaction to human yawning was also observed in monkeys.

“Copying the facial expressions (facial expressions) of others helps us adapt, understand and accept their current state,” says Matthew Campbell of Emory University.

That is why, according to the findings of one study, psychopaths are not so susceptible to the infectiousness of yawning.

Scientists can't explain why this mushroom grows only in Texas and Japan.

Mushroom Chorioactis geaster - the only member of the genus Chorioactis, growing only in two places on the planet, in Texas and in Japan, is considered one of the rarest mushrooms on Earth.

Both places where this mushroom grows are locatedat the same latitude, but mycologists have not yet been able to understand why it grows only in these two places. A study of fungal DNA, published by the Herbarium of Harvard University in 2004, suggested that the two populations were separated at least nineteen million years ago, which excludes the possibility of human delivery of species from one place to another.

In Texas, the mushroom has the nickname "Devil's Cigar". While the spores of the fungus are inside the fruit body, it has the appearance of a brown capsule, which really looks like a cigar. When a mushroom opens and releases spores, it resembles a star or a cactus flower. Devil's cigar when throwing a dispute makes a whistling sound, it is the only mushroom in the world capable of "talking." Maybe because of this he had such an ominous name.

No one knows why Saturn’s tremendous North Pole storm has a hexagonal shape.

A huge storm the size of two Earths on the northThe pole of the gas giant Saturn has a very strange hexagonal shape. For years, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft studied and photographed it, but scientists have not come close to unraveling its mystery. The only substance in nature that has a similar hexagonal form is certain types of crystals, so the researchers have no idea how the famous natural phenomenon of Saturn acquired such a form.

An additional riddle to this natural phenomenon is added by the fact that the storm changes its color from time to time, acquiring either a turquoise or a yellowish tint. It happens every few years.

Humpback whales began to gather in "supergroups", confusing marine biologists

International group of researchers in 2017discovered that humpback whales began to gather in "supergroups" to feed in subtropical waters near the coast of South Africa. This is a new and unusual behavior for these whales; they used to be not so social.

Whales gathered in "supergroups" in whichat the same time there were from twenty to two hundred individuals. The composition of the "supergroups" changed, sometimes separate individuals separated from them, sometimes they joined them, but the group itself did not disintegrate.

This behavior of humpback whales is described for the first time,scientists did not observe such dense accumulations of whales even in the feeding season at high latitudes. Judging by the observed data, the formation of "supergroups" began to repeat from year to year. The authors of the work do not know exactly why this is happening, but they assume that the formation of “supergroups” is associated with a large number of whales in the region where the study was conducted.

Science can not find a more accurate explanation of this "dancing forest" in Russia

Plot of coniferous forest in the Kaliningrad regiondiffers by the inclined and bent trunks of trees growing there. The trees themselves were planted in 1961 to strengthen the sands of the Curonian Spit. Because of its bizarre form, the forest was called "dancing". Some locals call it still "drunken forest."

There are several versions trying to explainthe cause of such a curvature of tree trunks. For example, such an anomaly can be caused by very strong winds, soil instability, or at one time damage to young growing pines by butterfly caterpillars, which ate the developing apical and, to a lesser extent, lateral buds. After the destruction of the apical bud, the tree continued to grow due to the lateral bud as the main bud. As a result, with further growth deformation of the trunk occurred, and the tree acquired an unusual shape.

We know almost nothing about dark matter and dark energy.

Ordinary matter consists of protons, neutrons andelectrons, but what is dark matter - remains a complete mystery to scientists. According to one hypothesis, dark matter may consist of particles that we simply cannot detect and determine. In 2016, it was suggested that dark matter may consist of primary black holes.

Dark matter does not reflect and does not absorb light, but high concentrations of this substance can bend light, and that is how scientists learned about its existence.

Assuming that our knowledge of the universe andphysics are true, then dark matter in space should be more than ordinary. Scientists explain that the amount of ordinary matter that exists in the Universe would not be enough to form all that surrounds us. Atoms, stars and galaxies, stones, trees and we - all this accounts for only 5 percent of matter in the known Universe. Approximately 25 percent falls on dark matter, and the remaining 70 percent comes from dark energy, astrophysicists say.

Scientists understand how cats purr, but do not understand why they do it

For a long time, scientists could not understand how to murmurcats, as a special body responsible for the production of such sounds, feline was not detected. According to recent studies, the purring mechanism is as follows: electric impulses arise in the cortex of the brain, which are transmitted to the muscles located near the vocal cords and cause them to contract. Actually, the “purr apparatus” is located in cats between the base of the skull and the base of the tongue and is a subtly connected sublingual bones. The contraction of the muscles near the vocal cords causes them to vibrate.

The reasons for the purring of a cat are not completely clear. According to one hypothesis, the purring with its vibration strengthens the bones of the cat, which are negatively affected by long immobility - cats, as is well known, can sleep and doze for 16-18 hours a day. Based on this theory, scientists have even suggested using “purring with a frequency of 25-100 Hz” for the speedy recovery of musculoskeletal activity of astronauts who have spent a long time in weightlessness.

Hundreds of incomprehensible signals from space every second

Fast Radio Burst (FRB) - Short Term(just a few milliseconds), single, but very powerful emissions of radio emission of unknown nature, equivalent to emissions of energy of 500 million suns. Scientists believe that such emissions in the Universe can occur every second, but so far only a little more than 30 such signals have been detected.

Fast radio burst FRB 121102, whose sourcepresumably located outside the Milky Way, is the only signal with repetitive nature. According to one of the assumptions, its source may be a young neutron star - one of the densest objects in the Universe.

In Siberia, there is a mysterious crater, the cause of which is not exactly known

In the east of the Irkutsk region on the mountainsidePatom Highlands is a unique geological object in its characteristics, called the Patomsky crater. The height of the object is about 40 m, the diameter of the ridge is 76 m. It is an annular structure of the central type with a bulk cone composed of limestone and other rocks. The cone is crowned with a flat top, which is a ring shaft.

For the first time about the crater became known thanksexpedition of the Soviet geologist Vadim Viktorovich Kolpakov, who discovered him in August 1949. A subsequent age estimate indicated the crater appeared about 500 years ago.

Among the locals, it is called the “Nest of the Fiery Eagle”. Due to the fact that next to it there are practically no animals, it is believed that this place is connected with death.

At various times, many were announced.assumptions about the likely nature of this crater. Among the most vivid and less likely are the fall of a meteorite, a nuclear explosion and the fall of an alien spacecraft. According to the most common opinion, the crater could appear as a result of endogenous (geological) causes associated with the development of some deep-seated magmatic process.

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