General, Research, Technology

5 most dangerous bacteria

Bacteria surround us everywhere. Among them there are those that help us live (for example, digest food), but also those that can wipe out part of the population from the face of the Earth. Although modern medicine has already learned how to deal with some pathogens, the most tenacious part of bacteria is still undefeated. There are five of these “thugs” among them who can cause serious illness and even death. The worst part is that you can pick up such bacteria almost anywhere.

Some of these bacteria can live in your home.

Content

  • 1 The most dangerous bacteria
    • 1.1 Bacteria that prevent breathing - Clostridium botulinum
    • 1.2 E. coli - Escherichia coli
    • 1.3 Anthrax - Bacillus antracis
    • 1.4 Causative agent of cholera - Vibrio cholerae
    • 1.5 Tetanus-causing bacteria - Clostridium tetani
  • 2 Where do dangerous bacteria live?

The most dangerous bacteria

According to some scholars, by 2050the mortality of humanity from bacteria can exceed the mortality from cancer. Where did such scary forecasts come from? A striking example is the plague stick of Yersinia pestis, a bacterium that killed over 100 million people. We managed to cope with the plague epidemic, but there are no guarantees that this story will not be repeated.

So far, microbiologists identify several of the mostdangerous bacteria that are already common. And mankind was not defeated only due to the high level of medicine and the consciousness of the people themselves (who, for example, do not drink dirty water, which can contain dangerous bacteria).

Bacteria that keep you from breathing - Clostridium botulinum

One of the worst and most ferocious bacteria. It causes botulism, a serious illness characterized by severe damage to the human nervous system. Subsequently, the bacterium leads to paralysis of the respiratory muscles, that is, a person simply can not breathe independently. As a result, he may die from a lack of oxygen in the body.

Clostridium botulinum usually lives in soil,often found in the intestines of horses and other animals, less common in the intestines of humans. It gets there, as a rule, from home-made canned food - mushrooms, beans and beets. Bacteria can also contain sausages, semi-finished meat products, smoked and salted fish. In order not to become a victim, doctors recommend not consuming canned food if they have swollen packaging or leakage, as well as conduct heat treatment of food. In the case of meat products - choose trusted stores and manufacturers.

It looks like Clostridium botulinum

This bacterium is so ferocious that if you add just one spoon in drinking water, you can exterminate the population of a large country. A few kilograms is enough for all to die the population of our planet.

E. coli - Escherichia coli

This bacterium has the beautiful name Escherichia coli, but do not be fooled by its name. E. coli it is dangerous in that it has both harmless strains that can live inside humans and animals, and pathogenic ones that cause intestinal infections.

Dangerous types of E. coli usually end up inan organism with dirty water, unroasted meat (unless it is intended for raw consumption), unwashed fruits or vegetables. Therefore, you should be responsible for the food you consume. If Escherichia coli enters the body, you must urgently consult a doctor - he will prescribe treatment in the form of antibiotics.

3D model of Escherichia coli. But beautiful!

Recently, while studying an E. coli strain(Escherichia coli) researchers found that some of them have mutations in the ydcl gene, due to which the bacteria seem to forget how to grow. Subsequently, they become small and slow, which is why antibiotics simply cannot find and destroy them.

Anthrax - Bacillus antracis

Yes, this dangerous disease is also caused by a bacterium.- Bacillus antracis contributes to its occurrence. This deadly bacterium can remain on surfaces for decades, entering the human body through the gastrointestinal tract or by airborne droplets. It can be transmitted from animals to humans, so if an outbreak is detected on the farm anthraxAll cattle are usually destroyed.

Most of the time, the bacterium spends in the form ofdispute, inactive form with extraordinary survival abilities. It can withstand almost everything, from a bathroom with powerful disinfectants to heating at a temperature of 180 degrees for two minutes.

Bacillus antracis bacteria - anthrax

Just get infected with anthrax nowimpossible - usually infection occurs through contact with animals that died during epidemics of the disease. Or if the country's army decides to use the bacteria Bacillus antracis as a biological weapon. In the USSR, for example, these bacteria were artificially grown in large quantities. In 1988, nine years after the leak of anthrax (the so-called anthrax) at the place of production, which led to the deaths of at least 105 people, the USSR finally decided to dispose of stocks. Huge vats of anthrax spores were mixed with bleach and transported to the port of Aralsk on the shores of the Aral Sea. There they were loaded onto barges and towed to the Renaissance island. The area was cleared only after many years.

Despite the ferocity of some bacteria, viruses are still considered more dangerous. Some of them can even kill bacteria.

The causative agent of cholera - Vibrio cholerae

We don’t want anyone to meet this dangerous bacterium in our Telegram chat, because cholera - A very serious disease in which chronic diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting and cramps are observed. As a result, due to the loss of water in the body and the lack of treatment, a person can die.

Mostly the bacterium lives in dirty water, but inRussian latitudes you are unlikely to meet her. The main location of the infection is considered to be the island of Haiti, where in 2010 one of the deadliest epidemics of the planet occurred. Then the infection affected more than 200,000 people, of whom 3,000 died. With timely treatment, mortality from cholera is quite low, but without the use of antibiotics, many who are infected are at risk of death.

Vibrio cholerae under the microscope

But this does not mean that you need to drink dirty water from the tap!

Tetanus-causing bacteria - Clostridium tetani

Pathogen tetanus - tetanus bacillus, penetrates throughdamaged skin (wounds, burns, and so on). It lives in the soil, so you should be especially careful when cutting, for example, in a garden or vegetable garden. Some tetanus bacteria can remain viable for months and even years!

With tetanus infection, the first symptoms mayappear in the period from three days to several weeks or even months. The disease is first manifested by contractions (twitching) of the muscles at the site of infection. Then a spasm can spread throughout the body. Cramping is very painful, lasting from a few seconds to several minutes. They can cause difficulty breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

Tetanus bacteria look like something else

Now tetanus bacillus is quitea common bacterium (it also lives in Russia), but due to large-scale vaccination, the tetanus epidemic does not occur. Moreover, even those who are ill do not develop immunity to this disease, without vaccination they can get tetanus again. Therefore, vaccination is repeated after a few years.

Where do dangerous bacteria live?

These are just some of the bacteria that mayto be dangerous to humans. Some of them live in huge numbers even in our homes. Probably many of you already know that the dirtiest objects in the apartment are a cutting board and kitchen sponges. Scientists generally consider them to be true bacterial incubators, because they feel great on their surface. So you need to wash your hands even at home and as often as possible. Well, keep the food clean, of course.