We all follow the news of science every day, butWhat is it? In essence, science is an activity in which mankind learns and adds up into a single system various facts about the reality around us. There are many scientific fields that focus on the study of space, living organisms, their lives, and so on. The people who contribute to the development of these areas are called scientists... These heroes, thanks to whom we havecars, computers and spaceships, there are thousands. But in history there are especially outstanding scientists, without whose discoveries humanity would have been marking time for a long time in one place. Let's remember a dozen great scientists and their discoveries? You can learn more about them from literature and documentaries - I will also mention the best and most detailed works.
Term "scientist" first used by the English philosopher WilliamWilliam Whewell in The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. He wrote that humanity needs to find a name for people who are engaged in science. Then the term appeared, which was translated into different languages of the world.
- 1 Albert Einstein is a smart funny guy
- 2 Marie Curie - life for science
- 3 Isaac Newton is the foundation of everything
- 4 Charles Darwin is a great traveler
- 5 Nikola Tesla - the father of electricity
Albert Einstein is a smart funny guy
This name is probably known to every person withchildhood. And the image of a "crazy" scientist with disheveled hair and protruding tongue can hardly be forgotten. The German scientist was born in 1879 and during his 76-year life he wrote more than 300 scientific works, and also became the author of 150 books and articles in the field of philosophy of science and history. As an honorary doctorate from some 20 leading universities in the world, Albert Einstein retained a great sense of humor. How can a bore say the following:
In my youth, I discovered that the big toe sooner or later makes a hole in the sock. So I stopped wearing socks.
Albert Einstein is considered one of the founders of theoretical physics, because he developed such important physical theories as:
- theory of relativity, which we talked about in this material;
- Bose - Einstein quantum statisticswhich is mentioned in this article;
- equivalence of mass and energy E = mc²
- theory of gravity, which we also mentioned many times.
Albert Einstein's contribution to science can bewrite dozens of thick books and make many long films. This, in principle, humanity is actively engaged in to this day. Interesting facts about Einstein can be found in the article by the author of Hi-News.ru Ilya Khel - did you know that he invented the pump and the blouse? And I think Einstein and Eddington 2008 is one of the most interesting films about the German scientist - I advise you to watch it.
You can also read about Albert Einstein's discoveries in the article "How did Einstein become the most popular scientist in the galaxy?"
Marie Curie - life for science
This name is also known to almost everyone whostudied at school. Of course, because Marie Curie is considered one of the greatest female scientists. This is the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in physics - this momentous event happened in 1903. Moreover, she is a Nobel laureate twice, because in 1911 she received the same award for achievements in the field of chemistry.
Marie-Curie is known as the man who for the first timein history told the world about such a phenomenon as radioactivity. Together with her husband, Pierre Curie, she literally turned the scientific ideas of the scientists of the 19th century and discovered two new chemical elements: radium and polonium. By the way, her father was a physics teacher and was friends with the Russian chemist Mendeleev. When she was still a simple employee of the laboratory, the scientist expressed confidence in her great future.
See also: What does radiation do to the body?
Maria devoted her whole life to the study of radiation,but did not even suspect that thereby daily destroys her body. At the beginning of the 20th century, people did not know about the harmful effects of radioactive substances and even used them in the manufacture of household appliances - the hands of a clock made of radium, for example, glowed beautifully in the dark. It is not surprising that Marie Curie carried radioactive elements from the laboratory home right in her pocket and could study them, roughly speaking, even at the kitchen table.
Active interaction with radioactivesubstances without protective clothing, in the end, caused the death of the great woman. In 1934, she died of aplastic anemia, and then her daughter Irene Joliot-Curie also died - the cause was anemia caused by exposure to radioactive substances at home. At the moment, Marie Curie's personal belongings cannot be used without protective suits, and her body was placed in a zinc coffin. And all because all of her body and personal belongings emit radiation.
If you know other interesting facts about Marie Curie, write in the comments or in our Telegram chat.
Marie Curie is on our list of seven scientists who died because of their own inventions. And as a biographical film, you can watch "Dangerous Element" of 2019.
Isaac Newton is the foundation of everything
Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day 1643 -perhaps, in this way, nature made a huge gift for humanity. The great English mathematician and founder of classical physics was born very painful and the people around him doubted that he would be able to survive. But the boy was able and lived up to the age of 84, which was enough to study mathematics, physics, mechanics, optics and even astronomy. Perhaps, if Isaac Newton did not exist, we would not have cars, computers and other technology around us today.
Here are some of Newton's discoveries:
- the law of universal gravitation;
- principles of classical mechanics;
- theory of planetary motion;
- the first, second and third laws of Newton.
During his life, the scientist wrote many scientificworks, but the most important of them is "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy." In Europe, this book has been published in an edition of 80 copies. These books are extremely valuable historical items - in 2016 it became known that one of them was sold at auction for $ 3.7 million. The original book is under the protection of the Royal Academy of Sciences - how much it costs, it's even scary to imagine.
To make it clear to everyone how great the contributionNewton contributed to science, one can say one thing - if not for his works, we would hardly be able to launch rockets into space today. We can say that with his works Newton brought humanity to a new level of knowledge and was able to explain by what principles objects move in the Universe, what light is and many other phenomena of our reality. In addition to his interest in mathematics and other scientific fields, Newton was engaged in other matters - for example, during his student years, he tried to come up with a universal language.
In general, Isaac Newton was very comprehensivedeveloped - this can explain the abundance of discoveries made by him. This became known only 200 years after his death, but, as it turned out, the scientist was also fond of mysticism. This trait of a great scientist can be found in the documentary "Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer" in 2013.
Charles Darwin is a great traveler
If it weren't for Charles Darwin, today we wouldn't knowhow the person came about. Born in 1882 and living to 73 years of age, the English naturalist is the author of The Origin of Species, which describes the theory of evolution. In general terms, this means that all living organisms have distant and very primitive ancestors who, in response to environmental changes, became stronger, more agile and wiser. It sounds quite plausible, but some scientists still doubt the results of Darwin's work. For example, recently renowned biologist Masatoshi Nei announced that the driving force behind evolution is not natural selection, but mutation.
Like any self-respecting naturalist, Charles Darwintraveled around the world - it happened in 1831, on the ship "Beagle". During the trip, the scientist took notes and collected a large collection of marine animals. On the basis of the notes made, the book “The Naturalist's Journey Around the World on the Beagle” was subsequently written. But this book is far from the most famous work of a famous naturalist.
The most important works of Charles Darwin are:
- the book "The Origin of Species", which was published in 1859;
- Household Alteration of Animals and Plants, published in 1868;
- The Descent of Man and Sexual Selection, 1871;
- "Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals", published in 1872.
Learn more about the life and work of the Britishnaturalist can watch two films. The first one was filmed in 2009 and is called Origins. The second documentary film is called "Charles Darwin and the Tree of Life."
Read also: 10 attempts to explain the phenomenon of life without Darwinian evolution
Nikola Tesla - the father of electricity
For many people, the name Nikola Tesla is a synonym"Electricity". This genius was born in 1856 and raised in Austria-Hungary, and then worked in France and the United States. Nikola Tesla devoted his entire 86-year life to the creation of devices operating on alternating current energy. Many biographers call him the man who "created the 20th century." His name is known not only among science lovers, but also in popular culture. It turns out that Nikola Tesla is as famous as Emmett Brown from the films "Back to the Future".
What Nikola Tesla created is usually describedon the pages of fantastic books. His contemporary was the American businessman Thomas Edison, who invented light bulbs. But Nikola Tesla always wanted to come up with something better. In the end, he managed to create neon lamps that could be lit from quite a distance. Isn't that magic?
Yes, in addition to Nikola Tesla, there was another great scientist - Thomas Edison. You can read about his inventions in this material.
Nikola Tesla really looks like a herofantasy novel or movie. He even had two secret laboratories at his disposal, in which he conducted life-threatening experiments with electricity. In 1899, he had a laboratory in the American state of Colorado. During one of the experiments, he created such a voltage in the electrical network that the city of Colorado Springs was left without electricity for some time.
The second laboratory was located on the islandLong Island, which is located in the northeastern United States. But it was impossible to call it invisible, because next to it was a giant tower. With the help of it, the scientist intended to transfer energy across the entire globe. In his opinion, in this case, our planet would have trembled, but the experiment was not carried out.
About the main inventions of Nikola Tesla you canread in an article by the author Hi-News.ru Ilya Khel. And you can learn about the personal life of the great "father of alternating current" from the feature film "Secrets of Nikola Tesla", filmed in 1979.
Read Also: 10 Proofs That Nikola Tesla Was The God Of Science
On the topic of interesting inventions, I also advise you to read another article by Ilya Khel - in it he talked about inventions that we will never see. And yes, Nikola Tesla's ideas are also mentioned there.