Although in terms of astronomy the Milky Way isits size is quite a “medium” galaxy, in fact it can contain up to 100 billion planets! Needless to say, most of them have not yet been studied, and it seems to me that it will take hundreds or thousands of years to study our galaxy like, for example, a room in an apartment. Of the planets whose existence has been confirmed by scientists, each has its own unique features and characteristics, sometimes fundamentally different from those that you and I are used to seeing on Earth. What planets can be called the most interesting?
- 1 Planet with three Suns
- 2 Planet as similar to Earth as possible
- 3 Planet on which the year is equal to the Earth
- 4 The closest exoplanet to Earth
- 5 planet with the ocean inside
- 6 Planet with the shortest year
- 7 Hell-like planet
- 8 Planet made of diamonds
- 9 Planet - a piece of ice
- 10 Planet with glass rain
Planet with Three Suns
At a distance of about 22 light-years from our Sun, a planet called LTT1445Ab. Three stars are located around her,which are a kind of copy of the sun. The planet is approximately 1.35 times larger than the Earth and 8 times more massive and receives 5 times more solar radiation from its stars.
Since this exoplanet is not locatedfar (some planets are hundreds of light years from the Sun), this gives astronomers a unique opportunity to carefully study the composition of its atmosphere. Now researchers are trying to find signs of oxygen and water vapor in it, which may indicate the possible presence of life. But you should not hope to find any traces of potential organisms on the exoplanet: extremely high temperatures and a high level of radiation make this place absolutely unsuitable for the emergence of life. Nevertheless, the illumination by three “Suns” at once did not pass without a trace.
1 light year - the distance that light can travel in one calendar year, which is approximately equal to 10 trillion kilometers
Planet as similar to Earth as possible
Among all currently known exoplanets, one of the most similar to our planet is Kepler 438b. She was found only 4 years ago, and she even hasits own miniature Sun is a red dwarf (which is much smaller and colder than our Sun). The distance to her be healthy - more than 470 light years! Why do scientists have such hopes on her? The planet is located in a place where it is not too hot and at the same time not too cold to maintain the presence of water in liquid form on the surface of the planet.
This planet makes a complete revolution in 35 days.
The mass of this planet is not fully understood, scientistsThey believe that it is only 1.4 times larger than the Earth’s, and the surface temperature can vary from 0 to 60 degrees Celsius. Sounds great right, huh? But do not rush to collect things: astronomers observed and found out that on the “mini-Sun” of the planet Kepler 438b very powerful emissions of radiation occur quite regularly, which can ultimately make this planet completely uninhabited.
The planet on which the year is equal to the Earth
Planet Kepler 452b was discovered by the Kepler space telescope in2015, when she passed opposite her native star - also a kind of “Sun”, as you understand. True, this “Sun” is located about 1,400 light years from us and is somewhat colder. The radius of the planet is only slightly larger than the radius of the Earth, but a year on it goes 385 days! For exoplanets, this is as close as possible to the usual inhabitants of our planet.
Like most other planets discoveredwith the Kepler telescope (hence the name is given to them), the mass of this planet remains unknown, however, scientists suggest that it is about 5 times larger than the earth.
The temperature on its surface is estimated to vary from -20 to +10 degrees Celsius and is able to maintain the presence of water in liquid form.
True, everything will depend on the composition of the atmosphere that the planet possesses. It has not yet been studied by astronomers.
The closest exoplanet to Earth
Planet Proxima-b, it is Proxima Centauri b, located only in4.2 light-years from Earth in the habitable zone of its star, the red dwarf. Her location is excellent, and the flight is not so far (well, almost close), but a year ago all hopes for her settlement collapsed. Scientists have found that the star of Proxima Centauri (the "Sun" of this planet) threw a flash of enormous size into space. If there was any life form on the planet Proxima b, then the flash, which turned out to be 10 times more powerful and brighter than the brightest and most powerful flash on our Sun, simply burned it out.
Currently under development, newtelescopes that will allow us to take a closer look at the planet Proxima Centauri b, and also help to find out if it contains any life (which under the circumstances is unlikely). Astronomers believe that this planet, unlike many others, can have a magnetic field. True, in order to effectively protect the planet’s surface, a magnetic field 100 times stronger than our Earth will need.
Planet with ocean inside
Planet Kepler 62f has its own orange dwarf that illuminatesher and is located about 1200 light years from us. It is colder than the Sun, therefore it is rather cool on the planet itself: the average temperature there is about -30 degrees Celsius. Due to the relatively stable climate, scientists believe that under the ice crust of this planet lies an ocean that can be compared in size to Europe.
Plus there are very beautiful night views, because in the skythe analogue of our Venus - Kepler-62e is constantly shining. The planet passes an orbit in 267 days, which is less than a year on Earth. Well, but the new year can be celebrated more often. True, first you have to get to there.
The planet with the shortest year
Tigarden Star was discovered by scientists back in 2003. It is a dull red dwarf, inferior in luminosity to our Sun by about a hundred thousand times, by mass - by more than ten, and by diameter - by seven. Planets are moving around her Tegarden b and Teegarden c. And the first one makes a complete revolution aroundTigarden stars in about 5 days! This is very fast, given that even our Mercury takes 88 days to “walk” around the Sun once. The distance from us is 12.5 light years.
Regarding climate, surface temperatureTeegarden b ranges from zero to +50 degrees Celsius, and the average is about 28 degrees. That is, the planet is more like Mars, but astronomers believe that liquid in its form can remain on its surface. Although I would first try to get to Mars, and only then draw conclusions about the habitability of other planets.
It seems like a planet Gliese 581 inspired by Dante when he wrote his"The Divine Comedy." It revolves around a red dwarf, many times smaller than our Sun, whose luminosity is only 1.3% of our luminary. One of its features is that one side of the planet is always facing the star, and the other is looking into space. Like our moon.
This is not the strangest planet - there are planets resembling an eyeball. Horror!
And that makes her incredibly interesting. If you go out on the side of the planet facing the Sun, then evaporate in less than a second. On the other side - freeze for the same time. It is theoretically possible to live in a “twilight zone” between two extremes, but this life will look like hell. Something similar was in the movie “The Chronicles of Riddick”, when a planet with a speaking name Crematorium turned to a star, and at that time all living was incinerated on its surface. Have you watched this movie? Tell us in our Telegram chat.
Planet made of diamonds
Planet 55 Cancri e almost completely made of crystallinediamond. Once it collapsed, but the carbon core remained and, under the influence of high temperature and gigantic pressure, it turned into one large diamond. True, with one minus - a temperature of 1648 degrees Celsius on the surface.
While the Earth is covered in water and abundant in oxygen, this planet consists of graphite, diamond and several silicates.
Now pure diamond is one third of the planet’s mass.
This gem is twice the size of the Earth andeight times heavier. The holder of such a resource would become the richest organism in the Universe. If, of course, I could get diamonds from the bowels of 55 Cancri e.
Planet - a piece of ice
Remember the Gliese 581? Is this the “adisha” we visited earlier? She has a younger brother - Gliese 436 b, which is a burning cube of ice. The temperature there is also not for vacation - 439 degrees Celsius. Why doesn’t it melt? There is a huge amount of water on the planet, just incredible. Gravity pulls it all in the direction of the core, compressing the water molecules so tightly that they cannot evaporate. This is not a kettle you boil up to 100 degrees.
Only the outer layers of water evaporate, thereforethe planet is constantly shrouded in steam, but all other layers remain in a solid state. The conditions there are truly hellish, there is no oxygen at all - there is such humidity along with high temperature that kills all living things, which in theory could arise there. But let's better colonize the planets warmer?
Glass rain planet
Not so far from Earth (just 63 light years, you think) is a planet called HD 189733 b. We still don’t remember this, so immediately tobusiness - why is it so unusual? The answer is simple: it rains there, and almost constantly. It's just that this is not an ordinary tropical rainfall or hurricane, precipitations in the form of glass fall on the planet. The thing is that the atmosphere is saturated with silicon dioxide, and when it rains, the conditional drops melt when they fall and harden.
But rain is only half the story. A strong wind is raging on the planet, the speed of which reaches up to 9,000 km / h. This is 10 times faster than the speed of a jet passenger plane. So it seems that we have another hellish planet on our list - you don’t want anyone to get into such a hurricane.
As you can see, there are manyplanets, and they are all different. Unfortunately, even the most Earth-like planets, depending on the activity of their native stars, may not be able to sustain life. Other planets, in turn, have extremely different sizes and surface temperatures from Earth. However, it is likely that among the found planets, one day we will nevertheless meet a planet with a mass, size, orbit, and a sun-like star around which it revolves, similar to Earth. But how to get there?