Sharks are among the most dangerousthe inhabitants of the seas and oceans - every year they make hundreds of attacks on people, and in about ten cases they kill their victims. At the moment, scientists know more than 360 species of underwater predators, among which are both small and defenseless, and huge man-eating sharks. A large number of films have already been made about them, ranging from the classic “Jaws” of 1975 and ending with the relatively fresh “Meg: Monster of Depth” 2018. But are they as scary as the films show?
Despite the great diversity, trulyOnly 10 shark species are considered dangerous to humans. Scientists recently found out that they all descended from the same ancestor who lived on Earth about 165 million years ago. The ancestor of modern murderers was not as scary as you can initially assume - the length of the ancient shark Palaeocarcharias stromeri did not exceed one meter, and it fed exclusively on small fish. Her descendants are much worse and more dangerous.
This species of shark mainly lives in the Indianand the Pacific Oceans. They prefer clear water, and are often found near coral reefs and near underwater cliffs. Besides the fact that they can frighten with a chilling look, they are very large in size - the length of the reef shark reaches two meters.
Despite all this, they attack people extremelyrarely - in 2011, only 11 cases of reef shark attacks on humans were known, and none of them were fatal. Sharks show aggression only if they are provoked, and in calm circumstances, they easily swim up to the divers and allow them to feed themselves from the hands.
This type of shark usually lives on shallowbays - parts of the seas, separated from the open waters by rocks, which protect them from wind and waves. The length of adult individuals is about 3 meters, and the weight reaches 180 kilograms. As a rule, these sharks hunt only at night, and mainly feed on fish and mollusks.
Because of their large size, they are consideredpotentially life threatening to people. However, in the history has not yet been recorded deadly attacks. There is a case when a lemon shark attacked a diver with a GoPro camera - fortunately, the man was not injured, which cannot be said about the recording equipment.
Blue sharks are considered the most common onEarth - you can meet with them both in the open ocean and on the coasts of different countries. The length of their body reaches four meters, and weight - 400 kilograms. This type of shark has practically no enemies, except for people who catch them both for entertainment and for cooking.
Of course, because of such hostility, people are oftenbecome their victims. Thus, in 2011, 34 attacks of blue sharks were recorded, as a result of which 8 people died. In 2017, there were even more victims - these predators ate more than 30 people off the shores of the Mediterranean.
This type of shark is also widely distributed, andoccurs in almost all warm seas. They prefer to live near the coast, and most of the time they are at the bottom, eating small fish, stingrays and other aquatic creatures. It is noteworthy that sand sharks are unique predators that can swallow air for easier navigation on the water surface.
Statistics states that from 1990 to 2011sand sharks attacked people as many as 30 times - they could not save one person, and he died. Despite this, the owners of oceanariums still consider sand sharks to be relatively safe creatures and are placed inside huge aquariums, allowing visitors to swim next to them.
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Giant hammerhead shark
These sharks live in warm and temperate waters.really huge - the length of the body of some individuals reaches six meters. As the name implies, these predators have a very unusual head shape, which looks like a hammer. Like the above described species, these underwater hammers mainly feed on fish, but there are cases when they ate even their relatives.
In 2011, biologists recorded 34 attackshammerheads on humans, and one of them was deadly. In fact, such a small number of deaths is very surprising - during an attack they behave extremely sharply and aggressively, and with their strong teeth they can literally tear people apart.
These predators live in all oceans, but chooseplaces with the warmest water. As a rule, they feed on fish, but their method of eating water creatures is very unusual - they open their mouth wide and quickly swim to the side of the fish flocks, so that they fly into their huge mouth.
Decades ago long-winged sharkscalled sea dogs, because they often chase the sailing ships. Legendary explorer Jacques-Yves Cousteau called them the most dangerous sharks in the world. The most famous attack of long-winged sharks was committed during the Second World War - then the ship Nova Scotia with 1000 passengers sank off the coast of South Africa, and most of them were torn to pieces by this particular type of shark.
This shark species lives in temperate andtropical seas, frightens not so much with its 4-meter body, as with its agility. It is known that the speed of the mako shark reaches 74 kilometers per hour. At the same time, she can jump out of the water to a height of 6 meters - it’s scary to imagine how cruel she can kill a person who is quietly sitting in a boat. There are as many as 20 such cases in the history, but fortunately, as a result, only swimming equipment was damaged.
As a rule, this species of shark hunts nearshores, and sometimes eats fish caught in fishing nets. From 1980 to 2010, 42 attacks on humans were recorded, three of which were fatal. Usually, the attack is made from the bottom up - the predator instantly bites off a piece of the victim's flesh. From the injured person can easily die.
This type of shark is also extremely common, andYou can meet him almost everywhere. Tiger sharks sometimes exceed 5 meters in length, and they are almost omnivorous - in addition to the remains of fish, birds and turtles, inedible objects are sometimes found in their stomachs. They can eat all this thanks to a huge mouth with developed muscles.
There are many cases in history when insidetiger sharks were found human bodies. For example, in 1937 one of these predators attacked two boys and was subsequently killed and opened - the bodies of the children were found in his stomach. By 2011, scientists had recorded 169 tiger shark attacks on humans, and 29 of them were deadly. On average, there are 3-4 attacks per year in Hawaii.
This type of shark is considered one of the most dangerousand tenacious, but at the same time is on the verge of complete extinction - at the moment biologists are aware of the existence of only 3,500 individuals. They are found on open waters and coastal zones of almost all the oceans of the planet, and with a mass of more than 1900 kilograms they reach 6 meters in length.
In the classic horror movie "Jaws"this species of shark was depicted as a bloodthirsty cannibal. All this is no accident, because from 1990 to 2011, biologists recorded about 139 cases of white shark attacks on humans, and 29 of them were fatal. With all this, most often people manage to escape after the first attack, but after the strongest bites, they still risk becoming disabled.
If the white shark has become the main antagonistthe film “Jaws”, the blunt-headed became the ideological inspirers of the film. Their body size can reach four meters, and this does not prevent them from swimming in the rivers, where they can easily enjoy people.
The most famous case of blunt shark attackson people occurred in 1916, on the coast of the US state of New Jersey. During a series of shark attacks, four people were killed and one was injured. It is believed that the attacks were carried out due to the fact that in the period from July 1 to July 12 too many people were bathing in the water, and the predatory fish smelled their smell.
After reading the attack statistics, you maysharks seem not to be such dangerous predators. In principle, you are right - scientists believe that the risk of becoming a victim of a shark is extremely low. For example, in the United States, far more people die from lightning strikes than from shark attacks. In addition, for most of them, people are not particularly desirable food, and in order for them to attack, they need to be thoroughly angry.
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