The bridges are among the most ancientinventions of mankind. If not for these structures, our distant ancestors would not have been able to travel long distances, because many kilometers are separated by rivers and other obstacles. At first they were simple and made of planks and ropes. But over time, people began to build truly great structures several kilometers long. Many of the longest bridges in the world were built relatively recently, after the 2000s. Heavy cars and people walk through them every day, but they hold on tight and look just amazing. The longest bridge is located in China and is over 164 kilometers long. Let's find out what it looks like and why it was created. Let's also talk about other long bridges on our planet.
- 1 What are the bridges?
- 1.1 Danyang-Kunshan Viaduct
- 1.2 Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct
- 1.3 Tianjin Viaduct
- 1.4 Changdei Viaduct
- 1.5 Bridge over the Wei
- 1.6 Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge
- 1.7 Bang Na Highway
- 1.8 Jaber's Bridge
- 1.9 Beijing Viaduct
- 1.10 Bridge-dam over Lake Pontchartrain
What are the bridges?
Bridges are structures that have been erectedover bodies of water, ravines and ravines to allow people to easily overcome them. Bridges erected over water are called so. But the structures above the roads are called overpasses... If a bridge crosses a ravine or ravine, it is - viaduct... It is also customary to divide bridges by traffic load: road, rail, pedestrian, and so on. There is also a division by design type:
- girder - simple bridges, which consist of supports and beams underneath. They are usually short and build relatively quickly;
- spacer - complex systems that consist of both lower beams and upper auxiliary parts like arches.
The bridges that I list below can be of different types. But they have one thing in common - they are at least 20 kilometers long.
Above, we have already found out that viaducts are calledbridges built over ravines and gorges. Danyang-Kunshan Viaduct was erected in 2010 between the Chinese cities of Shanghai and Nanjing. Its length is 164.8 kilometers and it is the longest bridge in the world. At least, this is what he is considered to be according to the Guinness Book of Records. Trains travel across this bridge, and about 9 kilometers they pass over the water. So, drivers and passengers can look at Yangchenghu Lake, which is the only habitat for the Chinese fur-hand crab, which is considered a delicacy. The information about the cost of this bridge is different in the sources. It ranges from $ 8.5 billion to $ 10 billion.
Interesting fact: during the construction of Danyang-Kunshanthe viaduct day and night worked by 10,000 people. The construction required 500,000 tons of steel and 2.5 million cubic meters of concrete. The bridge can withstand an earthquake of up to 8 points.
The second longest bridge in the world is also located onterritory of China. It is needed to move cars between the cities of Baguazhang and Kaohsiung. The structure was erected over mountainous areas that are considered seismically hazardous. In these places, earthquakes can occur, so the bridge had to be made especially strong. This railroad train stretches for 157.3 kilometers and just falls short of the first place. The viaduct was built in 2007. Since then, 200 million people travel by train every month.
This bridge was erected in 2010, betweenthe Chinese urban districts of Langfang and Qingxian. Its length is 113.7 kilometers and trains also move along it. Since it is located at the point where the 5 sources of the Hai-he River connect, sometimes train passengers can see the amazing beauty of nature. This bridge at one time solved a big problem in the form of a very long travel between two Chinese districts.
This bridge is 105.81 kilometers long, likedescribed above, was built in 2010 for the movement of trains between distant cities in China. The main feature of this bridge is that a completely new technology was used during its construction, which protects it from earthquakes. Trains on this bridge run at a speed of 350-380 kilometers per hour and can deliver people to remote regions in just a few minutes.
The fifth longest bridge connects Chinese citiesZhengzhou and Xi'an. The total length of the bridge is 79.7 kilometers, which is why it crosses the Wei River 2 times. Also, the long bridge crosses many other rivers, roads and railways. The construction of the railway route was completed in 2008, but it did not open until 2010. And this is a very direct route with a minimum of turns, so high-speed trains (of which there are a lot in China) have no chance of getting off the rails.
See also: What will the Earth look like if all the oceans are dry?
Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge
It just so happens that the longest bridges in the worldmainly located in China. The bridge that connects the cities of Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macau is a huge complex, which even includes an underwater tunnel. The structure was built by the state-owned China Communications Construction Corporation and opened in 2018. The length of this path is 55 kilometers, and it consists of 6 lanes for cars.
Bang Na Highway
And on the territory of Thailand there is a bridge 54kilometers, that is, it is slightly shorter than the previous one. This six-lane road is located in Bangkok and requires a toll. The bridge was built to reduce traffic jams when entering the city. so that drivers who don't want to get stuck on the road can pay the money and drive safely across the bridge. It was built back in 2000 and for some time was considered the longest in the world. Then the aforementioned bridges were built and the Bang Na highway lost its record-holder status.
The Jaber Bridge, 48.5 kilometers long, is located inthe state of Kuwait, which is in southwestern Asia. It was built in 2019 for vehicle traffic and has 6 main lanes and one emergency lane. A total of US $ 2.6 billion was allocated for the construction of the bridge. It can be considered the longest bridge that crosses the body of water without interruption to land. Tens of thousands of motorists pass through it every day, admiring the vastness of the Kuwait Gulf.
The so-called Beijing Giant Bridge wasbuilt in 2010 and is located, again, in China. Its length is 48.1 kilometers and it is designed for very fast trains. Some sources say that trains cross the entire bridge in just 6-10 minutes. This bridge is part of the railway line between the Chinese cities of Beijing and Shanghai. It is worth noting that the interval between train movements is only about 5 minutes. That is, this route works almost like a subway.
Dam bridge over Lake Pontchartrain
Finally, we have reached the tenth mostlongest bridges in the world. It was built back in 1969 and stretches 38.4 kilometers across the American Lake Pontchartrain. It was built to connect the cities of Metairie and Mandeville. To prevent the bridge from collapsing, the builders had to prop it up with 9,000 concrete supports. The history of this bridge is very long and during this time several emergency accidents happened on it. For example, in 1974 several barges collided with the bridge. Part of the road was destroyed and several cars fell into the water.
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Unfortunately, accidents on bridges are notrarity. Our site contains several articles on the worst disasters in modern history. You can read one of them at this link.