Determining the origin of the deadlydiseases are an important part of his understanding and appropriate treatment. Although the source of many diseases remains in question, there is irrefutable evidence of animal origin for the following list. When animals contact, the disease moves from one species to another. Unfortunately, we have become one of these types.
- 1 aids
- 2 Ebola
- 3 African sleeping sickness
- 4 Severe acute respiratory syndrome
- 5 Hendra virus
- 6 Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever
- 7 Machupo Virus
- 8 Marburg
- 9 Lassa Fever
- 10 Middle East respiratory syndrome
The history of AIDS is very long, and to traceits origin, a lot of effort was made. In particular, a certain “patient zero”, Gaetan Dougas, appears in the story. Dugas was a Canadian steward who became the first scapegoat and was known as a "patient zero" rather because of a misunderstanding, because zero was not a zero, but the letter "O" from "out of California", denoting the patient's origin. In the 1980s, Dugas was accused of spreading HIV and AIDS, but the virus — in humans, at least — was ahead of Dugas by several decades.
The truth is that AIDS has come to people because ofevents associated with chimpanzees in southern Cameroon as early as the early 1900s. According to the theory, a certain hunter went to the jungle, killed the chimpanzee, the carrier of the virus, and then began to carve the animal. During this process, the hunter either cut himself or already had an open wound, through which the disease was transmitted. Being a zoonosis (an animal virus that can be transmitted to humans), HSP became HIV, moving from the original host to humans.
African Fruit Bats
Until recently, it was thought thatCrab-eating macaques are responsible for the recent outbreak of Ebola fever in Africa, but it turned out that these primates are nothing more than “random hosts” of the virus. Now, the origin of Ebola is attributed to fruit bats, and scientists believe that they have found not only the first person infected with the virus, but also a specific place where the infection occurred.
It was not clear how two-year-old Emil Ouamounofirst became infected during the recent Ebola outbreak, but now it all comes down to the fact that the kid came into contact with infected bats while playing in a large hollow of a tree in the village of Melianda. The tree - which had been burned to the stump since that time - was inhabited by thousands of bats, and it is highly likely that Ouamouno came into contact with either bats or fecal masses lying at the bottom of the hollow.
African sleeping sickness
There have been several major flashes in history.African human trypanosomiasis - known as African sleeping sickness - and the incidence of this disease has increased significantly since environmental problems led to a ban on the use of DDT as an insecticide in the 1970s. The tsetse fly is the culprit of the disease because it carries the parasite responsible for fever, rash, excessive fatigue and edema - among other things - the causes of African sleeping sickness. WHO estimates that the disease affects 30,000 people every year, and the above-mentioned symptoms ultimately lead to coma and death.
African sleeping sickness is thought to playan important evolutionary role, and attempts to eradicate it are unlikely to be successful. Nevertheless, the fight against this disease continues, new interesting technologies are being developed, such as a “collar with a spray”, which should scare away the tsetse fly, and with it the infection. Given the wide habitat of the tsetse fly (they are represented in 37 countries), the fight against it is essential to prevent further outbreaks.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Initially it was thought that the reservoirs forsevere acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are civet (this is a subspecies of marten), but a 2013 study showed that the true owners are Chinese bats. Although there were theories that this syndrome needs an intermediate host (such as animals that are found in Chinese markets), research has shown that bats can transmit SARS directly to humans without any intermediaries.
The realization that civets do not carryresponsible for SARS infection, came after scientists noticed that civets do not become infected with SARS after contact with Chinese bird markets and there must be another owner responsible for transmission of the disease. Pandemics caused by bats from the beginning of this century (2002 and 2003) became “one of the most significant events in the field of public health in recent history” and caused a sharp international response.
Australian flying foxes
The first message foreshadowing a virus outbreakHendra, appeared in 1994 in Australia. And although the outbreak was fatal to humans, it had an even greater impact on the horse population. Vic Rail, a successful and well-known horse trainer in Australia, caught Hendra along with fourteen of his horses and died a few days later. Since the outbreak of the Hendra virus, only seven cases of human disease have been registered (four of them are fatal), but for zooonosis this remains a serious problem.
It was found that for the flash andHendra virus spread is responsible Australian flying foxes. The flying fox from the family of the winged suborder Megachiroptera is considered the largest bat in the world and has a wingspan of 1.5 meters. There is no direct connection between volatile foxes and humans, but all infections have occurred due to the initial infection of horses, which suggests that horses are a natural enhancer for the Hendra virus.
Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever
Congo-Crimea hemorrhagic fever (CCGL)causes symptoms similar to Ebola and Marburg fever, and its mortality is up to 40 percent. The first recorded outbreak occurred in 1944 in the Crimea among soldiers and villagers. While infection can occur as a result of contact with infected cattle, CCHFs cause ticks, and there is no vaccination against it yet.
Although there have been several outbreaks of CCGL in history,including recent in Uganda, in 2013. Then a farmer from the Baroma estate in the Atek parish was hospitalized with symptoms similar to CCGL. It was unclear whether the farmer received CCHF when in contact with ixodid mites or infected cattle. Although there is currently no vaccine for CCGL, there is a definite treatment that reduces the chance of death to a maximum of 40%.
Bolivian vole mice
Machupo virus, or Bolivian hemorrhagicfever has been considered a Ebola-related virus since the first cases of the disease in Bolivia in 1959. Subsequent outbreaks that occurred in northern Bolivia in 1971 and 1994 increased the Machupo virus’s mortality rate to 30 percent. Perhaps the indirect reason for some of the Machupo outbreaks was the widespread use of DDT in Bolivia (an insecticide to fight malaria), since it was partly the reason for the massive death of felids that fought mice. The mice obviously were reservoirs for the virus and passed it on to humans.
Machupo virus is carried by mice and virus particles.were found in urine, feces and saliva of field mice found in Bolivia. It was assumed that the virus is most efficiently transmitted when urine evaporates into the air and is inhaled nearby.
African Fruit Bats
The Marburg virus has symptoms that are verysimilar to those experienced by Ebola, including severe and potentially fatal hemorrhagic fever. Although there are those who point to monkeys as the cause, in fact fruit bats are to blame, which is also a natural reservoir for this deadly disease. People are likely to become infected during the cooking process of bats for food, since this fruit species is considered a delicacy in many areas affected by Marburg.
Research is ongoing, and they shouldto determine if other animals can act as reservoirs, but the monkeys are accurately removed from this list. Monkeys, like any other primates, must fight high mortality when infected with Marburg, whereas natural reservoirs of the virus do not experience such mortality. Given the widespread population of African fruit bats, the risk of a sudden outbreak of the Marburg virus is very high.
Lassa fever, like many other deadlyThe viruses on this list are endemic in West Africa and were first detected in 1969 after two missionary nurses died after being exposed to a virus in Nigeria. Like Machupo, this virus is transmitted by rodents, but in this case, by multi-rat rats. These rodents transmit the virus like Bolivian vole mice, most often with fumes of infected urine. What constitutes a particular problem, given the tendency of rats to build nests in homes that have a lot of common food.
Lassa fever is so common inWest Africa, that its outbreaks occur annually, infecting up to 500,000 people and killing about 20,000 per year. The last outbreak in Nigeria occurred several weeks after the country announced the beginning of the fight against the Ebola virus, when the vast majority of health workers were already busy.
Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome
Grave Bag Covered
Middle East respiratory syndrome is considereda disease that appeared relatively recently and is still localized in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula. Despite the fact that there have not yet been major outbreaks of this disease, there are fears that the deadly disease can spread very quickly, like a severe acute respiratory syndrome. Like SARS, this syndrome was released in the process of random mixing with a bat - a grave-winged sac-wing, to be exact.
Although for a long time it was believed that it was the gravethe saccoat is responsible for the origin of the BRS, it was not completely understood how the virus spreads through direct contact with bats or through an intermediate host. The researchers tested several different animals and concluded that any animal - including camels, sheep, goats and cats - can serve as an intermediate host through which BRS goes to humans.
Based on listverse.com