General, Research, Technology

The universe may have a fifth dimension

Back in the 1920s, in attemptsto combine the forces of gravity and electromagnetism, Theodor Kaluza and Oscar Klein suggested the existence of an additional dimension beyond the usual three spatial dimensions and time - which in physics are combined into 4-dimensional space-time. If it exists, then such a new dimension should be incredibly tiny and invisible to the human eye. In the late 1990s, this idea experienced a remarkable renaissance when scientists realized that the existence of the fifth dimension could provide answers to some of the fundamental questions in particle physics. In particular, Yuval Grossman of Stanford University and Matthias Neubert, a professor at Cornell University in those years, showed in their research that the introduction of the standard model of particle physics in 5-dimensional space-time can explain the intriguing patterns observed in the masses of elementary particles.

Scientists are almost certain they have found a portal to the fifth dimension.

What is dark matter?

It is believed that dark matter Is a mysterious form of matter, inaccessibledirect observation, since it does not participate in electromagnetic interaction. Dark matter also makes up most of the mass in the universe. In the early 1930s, radio astronomer Jan Oort reinforced the hypothesis of the existence of dark matter by discovering that more matter must exist than we observe for the Local Group of Galaxies to move. Since then, dark matter has helped researchers explain how gravity works, because many objects would simply dissolve or fall apart without some kind of "x-factor" - dark matter. Since this mysterious substance does not destroy the particles that we see and “feel”, it must have other special properties.

However, there are many problems in physics, and in addition to the darkmatter, there is a whole spectrum of questions to which there is no answer within the framework of the standard model. “One of the most significant examples is the so-called hierarchy problem, the question of why the Higgs boson is so much lighter than the characteristic gravity scale. The Standard Model cannot accommodate some of the other observed phenomena. One of the most striking examples is the existence of dark matter, "write the authors of the study, published in The European Physical Journal C.

Mysterious dark matter is invisible to observation.

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Physicists from the Johannes Gutenberg University inMainz, Germany, came to the conclusion that dark matter could appear as a result of the activity of fermions - particles with a half-integer spin. The research aims to explain the presence of dark matter using the WED (models for dark matter) model. During the work, the masses of fermions were studied, which, according to scientists, can travel to the fifth dimension through portals, creating dark matter and "fermionic dark matter" in the fifth dimension.

As the study authors told VICE, their original goal was "to explain the possible origin of fermion masses in theories with a skewed extra dimension."

A new particle whose existence is still onlyit remains to be proved whether it is a kind of fermion or subatomic particle. Physicists believe these particles can travel through the fifth dimension, linking dark matter to all observable matter in the universe. The authors of the study argue that this new particle will be able to interact with the Higgs boson and will be very similar to it. But its mass will be "heavier", so that even with the help of a collider or particle accelerator, it cannot be detected.

You will be interested: What is the Higgs boson and why scientists wanted to discover it

How to find a particle of the fifth dimension?

Ordinary matter is known to be composed of fermions. So if the fifth dimension is real, then fermions most likely fall into it. And if these "heavy" particles exist, then necessarily connects visible matter with the components of dark matter. Studying the 5D equations for the masses of fermionparticles, physicists came to the conclusion that “if this heavy particle exists, then it will necessarily connect the visible matter, which we know and which we have studied in detail, with the components of dark matter, if we assume that dark matter consists of fundamental fermions, which are in the extra dimension. "

The authors described the particle as "a possible new messenger to the dark sector."

See also: What we still don't know about dark matter?

Interestingly, with a groundbreaking theory,the abundance of dark matter in space in astrophysical experiments can be explained. “After years of searching for possible confirmations of our theoretical predictions, we are now confident that the mechanism we have discovered will make dark matter available for future experiments, because the properties of the new interaction between ordinary matter and dark matter - which is mediated by our proposed particle - can be exactly calculated according to our theory, ”writes Matthias Neubert, head of the research group.

Moreover, the authors of the scientific work believe thatthe new particle they proposed could play an important role in the cosmological history of the Universe and could even be responsible for the creation of gravitational waves. For more information about what gravitational waves are and how scientists managed to detect them, read the material of my colleague Artem Sutyagin.